Many have heard this emotional call in Spanish, but not everyone knows what it means "but Pasaran!", And, of course, do not remember the author and the situation in which he appeared. "But Pasaran!" translated as "they will not pass!" from Spanish.
Initially, this phrase was perceived as a statement about the tough unshakable defending the territorial borders of his country, political positions and unrealistic ideals. Authorship is attributed to the famous personalities of the beginning of the 20th century - the French General and Spanish Communist.
France: Robert Georges Nivel
The French version of the phrase was pronounced by the Divisional General Robert George Nivel during the First World War (1914-1918). He was the commander of the Verden sector of the Western Front, and later - the commander-in-chief of the entire French army. These words were told to them on the Western Front during the Verden battle.
The Verden Operation has become the largest and bloody battle in the history of the First World War. All the material and human forces of opponents were used as much as possible. Both French, and the German army beat not for life, but to death. Later, such military tactics called "the war to exhaustion", when permanent attacks de-energize the enemy, and the one who possesses large reserves. In such conditions, the emotional and moral support of soldiers and officers who are in a row in the zone of active hostilities were very important. And the phrase, which became a winged, supported the fighting spirit of French warriors, bravely defended their native land from the German interventionists. The slogan was actively used by state political propaganda and after the end of the war on military posters and emblems, in patriotic songs.
Spain: Dolores Ibarrury Gomez
How to translate "but Pasaran!"? In the Russian language, the winged expression was entered after his pronouncement by the active public figure Dolores Ibarrury Gomez during the Spanish Civil War between Republicans and Nationalists (1936-1939). Dolores Ibarrury Gomez (party nickname - passionary) - activist of the Spanish and international communist movement, an active participant in the republican movement during the civil war in Spain.
In July 1936, the passionaria advocated the radio and in hisFlame Speech
Calling the Spanish people to the union and resistance to military rebels, taking into power under the leadership of General Francisco Franco. Then she uttered this warlike cry: "They won't pass!"
And the beginning of the civil war actually passed under this significant exclamation. It is believed that after the appearance and distribution of this loud phrase, the Republicans came up with its continuation: "Pasaremos!", Which means "We will pass!".
For three years, the People's War continued between the Republicans and the Frankist Nationalists and the lives of more than 500 thousand Spaniards. Before her end, after the fall of Madrid, Francisco Franco gave the answer Dolores Ibarrury and all defeated Republicans: "Hemos Pasado!", What is translated as "We have passed!". For many years, the fascist dictatorship of Franco was installed in Spain. But the expression "But Pasaran!" And a hand raised up with a firmly compressed fist since the cult symbols of the world anti-fascist and liberation movement.
After defeating in the Civil War, Dolores Ibarrury Gomez emigrated to the USSR, where he actively participated in the work of the foreign opposition of the Dictatorship of Franco. It was possible to return to his homeland only in 1975 after the death of the dictator and the beginning of political change in Spain.
The value of the phrase in the modern world
Political slogans are often moving into a domestic language in the former verbal form. But at the same time, they radically change their meaning, absolutely losing ideological subtext. Typically, the phrase becomes joking or ironic.
What does the expression mean "but Pasaran!" in the modern world? Losting the political basis, now this winged expression speaks of readiness to actively counteract its opponents, competitors, enemies, and implies the presence of an insurmountable desire to become a winner. Sometimes, in a comic manner, they say when they want to support a person on the way out of some simple or ridiculous situation.
Use of expression in the mass culture
The slogan was used many times in the lyrics of modern performers. But unfortunately, most often the authors had a complete understanding, which means "but Pasaran!" Or they endowed this expression meaning, known only to them. For example, Rock musician Gleb Samoilov once sang a song with the name "But Pasaran", and the fashionable rap team "AK-47" together with the singer of Noggano performed another song, but with the same name.
Unlike Russian musicians, the Soviet writer Nikolai Shpanov perfectly understood what it means "but Pasaran!" His plenty novel "Militers. "But Pasaran!" "- a vivid example of anti-fascist military historical prose, telling about the time before the beginning of World War II.
Error view of the origin of the phrase
What does "but Pasaran!" For modern schoolchildren? If they do not learn Spanish, then there is probably the authorship and the historical situation preceding the appearance of an expression, usually they are completely unknown. Yes, and middle-aged people who have long graduated from school, often mistakenly bind the origin of this slogan with life and the active activities of the Cuban revolutionar Ernesto Che Guevara (1928-1967). Apparently, the European slogan is associatively associated with the language on which the Cuban political figure spoke. So, historical accuracy distorts, giving birth to myths and speculation.
The phrase "But Pasaran!".
Rare and not all known expression can be seen or hear from various sources, such as "but Pasaran". And the first thing that begins to make an inquisitive person, it is to look for an answer to the question, and what does this expression mean and how this phrase does it sound in general in?
If you contact the original source of the origin of this phrase, you can see that before the phrase, an inverted exclamation mark was put up and in the end of the usual and well-known, and the phrase looks like "¡ No Pasarán. ! ". From this it can be done that this expression is written in Spanish. Since from all languages an inverted exclamation mark is used in Spanish in addition to the main one.
Translated but Pasaran From Spanish, as "they won't pass!".
But few know that for the first time this expression was used during the Verden meat grinder by the French general Robert Nivel and it was in French, it sounded differently "ILLS Ne Passeront Pas".
In Russian, the phrase "but Pasaran" appeared after Dolores Ibarurouri said during the Spanish Civil War and became a real slogan and an anti-fascist symbol.
What does it mean?
1. Latin expression "Tempora Mutantur"? Translation and origin
Many more than once heard the phrase "but Pasaran" and even used it in a conversation for the sake of a red sense, not knowing no translation or the history of this slogan. It is difficult to imagine how many people, screaming these words, went to death for the sake of freedom and independence of their homeland.
What does the phrase "But Pasaran" mean
The slogan NO Pasaran means a firm intention to defend its beliefs at any cost. The literal translation of this popular expression sounds like "they will not pass."
The expression was uttered in Spanish, but this Idiome acquired a political color and somewhat different meaning thanks to the French.
Who first uttered "but Pasaran"
During the First World War in the West direction, fierce battles of French troops with German invaders were conducted. One of the decisive battles was the battle at Verden, called later by the "Verden meat grinder."
It was then that in 1916, the French General Nivelem was first uttered the phrase ILS Ne Passeront Pas - "They will not pass." It sounded against the German soldiers who went to the offensive on one of the most impregnable fortresses of Europe - Verden.
Civil War in Spain
What does "but Pasaran" mean, it became widely known to a little later, during the time of the uprising in Spain, which has been dusing from 1936 to 1939. Republicans and loyalists opposed the opposition general Francisco Franco, promoting nationalism and actively supported by the fascist Italy, Germany and Portugal.
In those days, the personality of Dolores Ibarrury, activists of the Communist Movement, openly advocated the freedom of Spain and its independence. It was she who in one of his speeches in the public uttered the phrase, which became a legend. What does "but Pasaran" mean, it became clear and Russian troops who participated in this military operation. The expression has become popular among many countries of the communist camp.
What does "but Pasaran" mean for people of that time? This is a slogan with which you can go to death, knowing that your victim will not be empty. It is worth the memory of these true patriots, for which political beliefs were more important than their own life.
There is a response to this known statement. 4 days before the end of the war, Madrid was still captured. Then General Franco is the phrase of Hemos Pasado, that is, "we passed."
Nowadays, any member of the anti-fascist organization, which is quite a few worldwide, knows what "But Pasaran" means. The phrase became a symbol of combating fascism in any of its manifestation.
"But Pasaran" (Span. ¡No Pasarán! — "(They) will not pass" ) - The political slogan expressing the hard intention to protect his position.
ON NE PASSE PAS - French poster
This phrase rises to the French military slogan of the First World War FR. ON NE PASSE PAS! - ("There is no passage"), which in turn repeats the idiomatic expression, the usual for prohibiting tables [The source is not specified 699 days ]. The slogan was popular during the battle at Verden (1916) as the expression of the determination of the French to defend their native land. He became winged thanks to General to Robert Nivel, although the expression was used in military propaganda and earlier. Then the patriotic song was written: "Verdun! ON NE PASSE PAS "(Text Ezhen Zhuio and Jacques Kazoy, Music Rene Mercier), in the chorus which in particular it was said:" Halte Là! ON NE PASSE PAS ... (...) C'est Ici La Porte De France, Et Vous Ne Passerez Jamais »( "Stop! There is no passage! (...) This is the Gate of France, and you will never pass through them! " ). Frame also appeared on propaganda posters after the second battle on Marne (1918) and later reproduced on the emblems of the Garrisons of the Maginos line (1929-1940).
In Russian, this slogan got from Spanish. During the Civil War in Spain (1936-1939), when Frankist's troops approached Madrid, Dolores Ibarrury was used in his speech on July 18, 1936 (also called NO Pasarán). After that, the slogan became one of the symbols of the anti-fascist movement. The defense was successful, Franco had forced to stop the offensive. Inspired anti-fascists noted this by the appearance of a new (less known) slogan: " ¡Pasaremos! " (We will go!).
The response phrase Francisco Franco "Hemos Pasado" ("We passed") sounded only in three years, after the fall of Madrid 4 days before the end of the war. Almost immediately after that, the well-known Spanish singer Selia Games performed the song 'Ya He Hemos Pasado' ("and still we passed") [one] .
Almost each of us heard this emotional phrase "but Pasaran", which was said in Spanish, but not everyone knows what it means and where he came from in Russian. And most importantly: whether we use it in the context of speech.
From Spanish, the phrase is translated as "they will not pass." Initially, its interpretation was associated with the protection of Spanish borders from foreign invaders. The authorship of the phrase belongs to the French general Robert George Nivel and Spanish Communke Dolores Gomez. The phrase "they will not pass" appeared during the First World War, namely the Verden battle on the Western Front. The general then said this phrase in support of the moral spirit of his soldiers who bravely fought with the Germans. Verden Battle is considered one of the most bloody. Later, historians called him "battle for survival."
The phrase came to Russian after Dolores Gomez said it. She uttered her during his fiery speech on the radio. Dolores led its activities during the Republican War in Spain. In his speech, she called on the people to unite in the resistance of military rebellion in the country.
In a modern understanding of the phrase "but Pasaran" lost political painting and is already used in the meaning of opposition to competitors and offenders.
It can be noted that many phrases came to us from the speech of politicians and political slogans, but already lost the initial symbolism and meaning.
One thing is important: to use phrases in the right context, but in order not to get into an awkward situation, it is better not to say those words and expressions at all, the values of which you do not know.
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Frame from k / f "Brave heart" (1995). | Photo: photo.allindoneews.com.
At all times, being on the battlefield, the war shouted emotional appeals. At the right moment, such clichi raised the fighting spirit of the warring, frightened the enemy or helped to distinguish their batch from other people's heat. Perhaps everyone will remember William Wallace performed by the wonderful actor of Mela Gibson, who shouted "Scotland forever!", Leading the army. This review presents the origin of the five most famous combat.
NO PASARAN! - battle cry. | Photo: cs8.pikabu.ru.
In 1916, during World War I, French General Robert Nivelle cried out the phrase: "On Ne Passe Pas!" It was addressed by the German troops during the collision at Verden and translated as "they will not pass!" This expression began to actively use the artist Maurice Louis Henri Newmont on propaganda posters. After about a year, it became a combat tide of all French soldiers, and then Romanian.
In 1936, "they will not pass!" He sounded in Madrid from the mouth communist Dolores Ibarruri. In Spanish translationNO PASARAN
This cry has become known worldwide. He continued to inspire soldiers to the second world war and in the civil wars of Central America.
Jeronimo (Goyatlay) is the Indian of the Apachi tribe, 1887. | Photo: ru.wikipedia.org.
The emergence of clicking "Geronimo!" We owe IndyatayGoyatlia
from the apacha tribe. He became a legendary person, because for 25 years he headed the resistance against the invasion of Americans to his lands in the XIX century. When in the battle, Indian rushed to the enemy, then the soldiers with horror appeased to their holy Jerome. So Goyatlay becameJeronimo
In 1939, the director Paul Sloane devoted his western "Geronimo" by the famous Indian. After watching this film, the ranks of the 501th airborne regiment Eberhard, performing test jumps with a parachute, jumped out of the plane with a cry: "Jeronimo!" His colleagues did the same. To date, the nickname of the brave Indian is the official customer of American parachutists.
Demonstration of Muslims. | Photo: Kimgou.ru.
If someone hears the "Allah Akbar", then the imagination immediately draws unilent pictures of radical jihadists. But this phrase itself does not bear any negative shade. "Akbar" is an excellent degree of the word "important". Thus, "Allah Akbar" can be literally translated as "Allah Great."
"Banzai!" - The fighting cry of the Japanese. | Photo: kinokritik.com.
In distant times, when China is the rules of the Tan dynasty, the inhabitants were widely used the phrase "Wu Huang Wanzui", which can be translated as "let the emperor of 10 thousand years old". Over time, only the second part of Wanshui remained from the expression. The Japanese adopted this wish, but in the transcription of the country of the rising sun, the word sounded as "banuses". But it was continued to be used only in relation to the ruler, wishing long health.
In the XIX century, the word changed again. Now it sounded like "Banzai" and was used not only in relation to the emperor. With the onset of World War II "Banzai" became combat tide of Japanese soldiers, especially Kamikadze.
Jr. Politruk A. Yeremenko, calling fighters to attack a few seconds to their own death. | Photo: storage.suffra.com.
There are quite a few versions of the etymology of the combat "Hurray". Philologists tend to two versions of the origin of this word. It is used in English and German cultures. There are consonant in Hurra, Hurah, Hooray. Languages believe that Klich arose from the Vernenevsky word "Hurren", that is, "quickly move."
According to the second version, the cry was borrowed from Mongol-Tatars. With the Turkic "UR" can be translated as "Bay!"
In addition to combat, the cultures of some nations were attended by combat dances. For example,Capoeira - Afro-Brazilian view of martial arts,
Combining elements of acrobatics, games, dance and accompanied by national Brazilian music.
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Slogan on Madrid Street, 1937
"But Pasaran" (Span. ¡No Pasarán! , FR. ILS NE Passeront PAS — "They will not pass" ) - The political slogan expressing the hard intention to protect his position.
For the first time, the fact of use of this slogan was recorded during the battle at Verden in 1916 by the French general Robert Nivel (although sometimes he is attributed to his boss, then the commander of the second army, Philippe Petenu). These words in the form ' ON NE PASSE PAS! ' They also appeared on propaganda posters after the second battle on Marne and, after reproduced on the emblems of the garrisons of the Magino line.
In Russian, this slogan got from Spanish. During the civil war in Spain, when the troops of Frankists approached Madrid, Dolores Ibarrury was used, making these words with one of the symbols of the anti-fascist movement. The answer was the phrase of Francisco Franco "Hemos Pasado" ("We passed"), said after the fall of Madrid.
In our convenience, we use many phrases, about the meaning and origin of which we do not even think. We decided to tell what the phrase "But Pasaran" means and where she came from.
Often, people think of where all sorts of words and expressions come from, which are used in everyday speech. Today we will deal with one of the old expressions as "but Pasaran".
"But Pasaran" - what does it mean, how is it translated?
This famous expression came to our speech from the Spaniards. They talked - "NO PASARÁN!" . It translates as - "They will not pass" . "But Pasaran" was used as a combat clique in the civil war of 1936-1939 in Spain.
The most first of this phrase began to use the French in the first world war. Although the sound was somewhat different - "ON NE PASSE PAS!" that translated means "There is no passage" . This phrase has met often on signs with prohibiting signs.
The biggest popularity of the phrase began to use in 1916 during the battle in Verden. Such a slogan, the French showed that they were customized to keep their lands and did not give it to anyone.
Phrase NO PASARAN I became the most popular after uttering her Robert Nivel. Moreover, it so much won the hearts of people that was even written by the song. Later, the slogan began to be used on Marne in 1918.
Many are perplexed when this expression has time to become Spanish, because it was French. However, everything is definitely here. When, during the Civil War in Spain, the troops approached Madrid, it immediately became clear that in addition to defeat, they were no longer waiting for them.
On that day, Dolores Ibaruri, which is in resistance and is one of its most active participants, said a whole speech that began to be called NO PASARÁN . After some time, it began to be used among anti-fascists.
When the defenders of Madrid defended their city, they began to pronounce another slogan - "Pasaremos!" which translated sounds like "We will pass!" .