Who was Jesus Christ: did Jesus existed in reality and what did he look like?

Jesus Christ is a Jewish preacher and the religious leader of the I century, the central personality in Christianity. It is called Messia (Anointed), predicted in the Old Testament.

Jesus Christ is a Jewish preacher and the religious leader of the I century, the central personality in Christianity. It is called Messia ("Anointed"), predicted in the Old Testament.

Believers worship him as the sons of God, who accepted sacrificial flour and died for the redemption of human sins, and then rose from the dead and ascended to heaven.

The new covenant contains many prophecies about the second coming of Christ, who will be left a terrible court, after which eternity will come: blissful for the righteous and painful for sinners.

Jesus and Maria, Fresco Fragment Mickelangelo "Scary Court". Wikimedia https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/113579402.jpg

What does Jesus Christ mean? Meaning of the name

Jesus is the Slavic transliteration of the Greek form of the Jewish name Yeshua. It was quite common in Judea I century and means "Yakhwe Savior" (Yakhwe is one of the ancient and most frequent names of God mentioned in the Bible).

Christ - Greek "Anointed", the same as the "Messiah". This is not a "surname", but rather something like the title, title.

In times of Christ, Jews had only a name. For the designation of a particular person, patronymic or hometown was added. Therefore, in the New Testament, it is often called "Jesus from Nazareth", as well as the "Son of Carpenter", "Son Joseph", "Son Mary".

Was Christ a real person? Did he really exist?

Most scientists and researchers, including non-religious, agree that Jesus Christ was a real person who inspired to cult mythology. Perhaps, only the most ardent atheists are categorically denied.

At the same time, age-old disputes about many facts continue. An enlightened mind is difficult to take biblical stories about the wonders of Christ, from walking around the water until the resurrection of Lazarus four days after death. Therefore, scientists rely not only on literary analysis, but also on history, archeology, anthropology.

The fact that Jesus committed, perhaps not fabulous, but some impressive acts in Galilee, in Jerusalem, the fact that he was executed - all this fits into the real scenario.

"Resurrection of Lazarus", Rembrandt. Wikimedia https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/531100160.jpg

Who was "real Jesus"?

According to the versions of scientists, Jesus could be a wandering sage, a religious reformer, a revolutionary (fighter for social justice), the prophet of the apocalypse. However, none of these hypotheses is adopted as the main one.

Today, the political, economic and social flows of Galilee of the Republic of I century are meticively, to understand that he has exalted this person and his mission.

It is known, for example, that by the time of the birth of Christ Palestinian lands over 60 years old were under the oppression of the powerful Roman Empire. Almost all the Jewish population was displeased with taxes and idolatry of the Romans. Most likely, against the background of folk unrests, the leader appeared, which caused a great response to the fact that he began to condemn the rich and omnipotes, bless the poor and rejected.

"Blind Jericho", Nicola Pussen. Wikimedia. https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/651079087.jpg

Documentary certificates of Christ

The most ancient mention of Jesus from Nazareth is available in a variety of sources. Some have been written by the contemporaries of Christ and not only Christians, but also those who condemned them as sectarians.

The first non-church author, mentioning Jesus, is considered ancient European historian Joseph Flaviy who lived in the first decades after him. In his writings, he twice refers to Christ. In particular, he writes about Jacob - Brother "Jesus, who is called Christ."

Another 15 years later, the name of Christ emerges in the writings of two well-known ancient Roman writers and influential politicians. Pension younger и Tacita . The first in the correspondence with Emperor Trianna tells about the customs of Christians and writes that they honor Christ as God. The second in his famous historical work "Annala" describes the execution of Christians and confirms that "Christ, on behalf of which this name is [Christians], executed with Tiberius the procurator of Ponti Pilate."

"Christ in front of the Pilate", mosaic on the sketches of Nikolai Bodarevsky. Wikimedia. https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/668228333.jpg

For comparison: the legendary King of Arthur, the central hero of the British epic and many knightly novels, will not be mentioned in any of the significant historical documents of the era in which he allegedly lived. The first records of him appeared only after 300-400 years, and their accuracy is doubtful - rather, it is a folklore.

Here is another indicative fact: the contemporaries of Christ and the ancient figures, born shortly after him, did not doubt the real existence of Jesus from Nazareth. He could not recognize, despise as illegitimate (Maria became pregnant to marriage with Joseph, what is clearly stated in the Gospels from Matthew and Luke), consider the adventurer and a fraudster, who gives a lie for the truth, but no one challenged that such a person really lived.

Archaeological finds

Serious studies of biblical seats began 150 years ago. Moreover, the excavations only strengthened the arguments in favor of the real existence of Jesus, although usually archaeologists, on the contrary, refute the myths.

"Boat Jesus" - the fishing boat of the times of Christ, found in 1986 in the Galilee Sea. Wikimedia. https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/614647456.jpg

One of the most important finds were the ruins of the synagogues of the times of Christ, first discovered in 2009 on the site of the ancient biblical city of Magdala (place of birth of Mary Magdalene).

Mosaic gender of the synagogue. Photos from Magdala.org https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/324735450.jpg

Until then, it was believed that the synagogues appeared in Galilee only after decades after Jesus, so skeptics argued that the evangelical records of his sermons and miracles in synagogues - fiction.

"The phenomenon of Christ Mary Magdalene after the resurrection," Alexander Ivanov. Photo: Alexey Bushkin / RIA Novosti https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/722387727.jpg

Even more archaeological correspondences were found in Jerusalem, where, according to the Bible, the greatest and dramatic events occurred, from the solemn entry of Christ to the city before his execution on the cross and resurrection.

For example, before the XIX century there was no evidence, in addition to the Gospel of John, about the existence of the Bifsties - a bathing of a sheep gate, where Jesus healed a man, paralyzed 38 years. Scientists believed that this place does not exist, and that the biblical text was written much later by someone who had no reliable knowledge about Jerusalem. But in the XIX century, archaeologists have discovered the remains of the font corresponding to the description.

Such was the Bifra in Christ. Layout in the Israeli Museum. Wikimedia. https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/372987831.jpg

Ruins of Bifsties. Wikimedia. https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/849023610.jpg

Mystery of the Turin Drowby: fake or shrine?

In the main Cathedral of Turin, a flaxable canvas with a person's fingerprint in a terns and blood stains is stored. Believers believe that this is a genuine image of Christ. According to the Gospels, the body of Jesus, after death on the cross, was wrapped in a shroud and buried the Jewish rite in the cave carved in the rock.

The Orthodox Church is inclined to believe in its authenticity. Catholic does not convince this and honors as a symbolic relic.

Touris Cloak: Positive (left) and negative. Reuters https://img.news.com/media/gallery/107519167/10746422.jpg

Scientists converge in the fact that it is a medieval fake. Radio carbon analysis, conducted in 1988 in the laboratories of three different countries, showed that the fabric was made between 1260 and 1390 years. This coincides with the moment of the first appearance of the shroud (1354) and its first submission to the general public (1389).

At the same time, the nature of the print on the fabric, which, in essence, is a photonagative, to this day remains a mystery.

An image of a face on a loaf (negative). Depositphotos https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/494972306.jpg

Nowadays, the reservoir was investigated by the advanced methods of forensic medicine and forensic. In 2018, it was once again stated that this is an imitation, since only one who moved to blood could leave, and standing and taking different poses, but not a fixedly lying person.

What did Jesus look like?

In the western art of Jesus Christ, they depict more often than anyone. However, the tradition of icon-painted portrait is a beautiful white face with the right features, a neat beard, long wavy hair - originated only 500 years after the intended time of his life, already in the VI century.

Typical Catholic image of Christ. Depositphotos https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/836387594.jpg

Savior Almighty is the most common image of Christ in Orthodoxy. Sofrino.ru. https://img.nerews.com/media/gallery/107519167/847994500.jpg

In the Gospels there is no description of the appearance of Christ during life. There are hints in the Old Testament, and contradictory. On the one hand, in Book Psalmov It says: "You are more beautiful than the sons of human", "Strong, Gleovoy Your and Your Beauty" (Ps 44: 3). On the other, in Book of the Prophet Isaiah It is said: "There is no species or greatness in it; And we saw him, and there was no type in it, which would attract us to him "(IC 53: 2).

Anthropologists believe that real Jesus was hardly beautiful and stand out among others - otherwise in the New Testament it would certainly be mentioned. For example, the Bible unequivocally describes the beauty of Moses and David.

British anthropologist Richard Niv I recreated an exemplary appearance of seven from Galilee, the times of Christ on the structure of the skulls - that's how Jesus himself could look like something.

Historian and archaeologist Joan Taylor In his book of 2018, "How did Jesus look like?" Also concludes that he possessed the most ordinary appearance. Most likely, there was a low (approximately 170 cm), thin and durable, with black short curly hair, a short beard, brown eyes and dark rude skin (perhaps darker than the tribesmen, since it was saved and wandered under the scorching sun).

Rubric: Fundamentals of Faith

Jesus Christ - God or the Son of God?

The Holy Trinity

God and Jesus Christ - is this one and the same or not? According to Orthodox creed, God is alone, but it has three hypostasis. This is the father, the Son (Jesus Christ) and the Holy Spirit. They cannot be considered separate deities. These are independent personalities, but they have one nature and together are the Triune God. Thus, Jesus Christ is God, along with the Father and the Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the trinity of God is reflected in the concept of the Most Holy Trinity.

Jesus Christ God
Lord Jesus Christ (Byzantine Mosaic)

God Father is the source of the timeless life of the Son's God and God of the Holy Spirit. It is also a source of will and the actions of the entire Trinity. This will is performed through the god of the Son, who is born out of the day from God Father. The son acts through the God of the Holy Spirit emanating from him. Despite the uniqueness of the three divine hypostasis, they are not subordinate to each other. They are in unity and equality of mutual love. They have a common will, power and power.

"Do not humiliate deities, do not prefer one, humiliating another. One is the nature of an immeasurable, unoccupied, flue, good, free and even. One is God in three insights, managing the world "(St. Gregory Theologian. Creation).

The doctrine of Trice God is the fundamental dogma of the Church. For the first time, it was formulated in 325 at the first Nicene Cathedral in the Faith symbol. Dogmat finally fixed in 381 at the first Constantinople Cathedral. The doctrine of one, but triipostasic God allocates Christianity from other monotheistic religions (Judaism and Islam). The Christian idea of ​​the Trice is called Trinitarian Monotheism.

Metropolitan Anthony (Pakanich) notes:

"The doctrine of the Holy Trinity is a mystery that in its fullness will never be comprehended by the creative human mind. God is not a reason, but a heart, an awake life, the execution of the commandments of God. If a person will approach God in this way, God himself opens himself in the heart of man. "

Jesus is God or the Son of God?

The concept of "Son of God" is still in the Old Testament. So could call the king or the whole of God. In the New Testament, members of the Holy Church are also referred to as the sons and daughters of God. That is, the children of God are all who is faithful and belongs to him. However, Jesus is the Son of God's unique, only sense. Therefore, it is called the only begins (John 1: 14,18, 3:16, 18; Gal. 4: 4).

The above-mentioned human sons of God are his creation, they are as if adopted by God. Jesus Christ God by nature, he is not the creation of God. He is a sign and a one-way father, that is, who is on the side of the Creator, not creation. Two thousand years ago, the Creator came to our world represented by Christ. So he connected with his creation - man. The Holy Trinity is inseparable, Jesus is both God, and one of his hatches - the Son.

In the "dogmaticology" Archpriest Oleg Davydenkova is indicated:

"When we confess the Son of God God, we mean that he is God in his own, the direct sense of the word, that is, God by nature, and not to adoption (in the figurative sense)."

Instructions on the nature of the origin of the Son from the Father (Birth) and their hypostasic difference are still contained in the Old Testament (Ps. 2: 7; Ps. 109: 1,3). In the New Testament about the hypostasic difference and at the same time, the asks of the Father and Son are mentioned in the Gospels from John and Matthew (John 1: 1-3; MF. 11:27; John 14:31; In. 5:17) . Christ himself speaks of his divine son, about the equality of power of the Son and Father. As well as about the personal complicity in fathers of commercial action (in. 5: 17-19; 10:36, 11: 4).

From the Gospel of Luke, we can find out that Jesus Christ forg your sins to people. It also points to his divinity (LC. 5:20). The unity of the Son and Father is mentioned in many other places of the Holy Scripture (John 10:15; In. 10:30, in. 10:38; In. 5:21; In. 5:26).

Jesus Christ - God and man

Christ called himself not only by God's son, but also human (John 8:40, 12:23; Mat. 24:27, MK. 9:12). Jesus is God and a person at the same time, that is, the Godhead. How God he is boring (always, out of time) is born from his father. As a man of Christ was born from the Virgin Mary at a certain moment of human history. This event was called a awareness. Dogmat about the compound in Christ the Divine and human nature was adopted at the IV Ecumenical Cathedral (451). It is contained in the symbol of faith.

Christ in everything was like a person, except for his sinlessness. Therefore, he was and perfect God, and a perfect person.

Saint Simeon New theologian wrote that the Most High

"All divine hyposta combined its own essentially with our nature and this human nature combined with his creature and made him his own so that the Creator Adam himself was immutable and invariably became a perfect person." ("Collection of creations").

The Most High became a man without ceasing to be God. Human and Divine began in Christ united, but did not mix. At the same time, they are inseparable - Christ is one person, and not two separate. God embodied once and for all, his two nature will no longer be separated.

Why did God embodied from the Virgin Mary

God embodied for our salvation. Thus, the reconciliation of man and god, the update of our nature, spoiled by the Freshness of Adam and Eve. V. Lossky notes that the incarnation was committed because the person was terminated with God's sin. It means that human participation was needed to restore this connection.

"So the death of Christ is eliminating the barrier, erected by a sin between a person and God, and his resurrection takes her sting from his death" (V. N. Lossky, G. V. Florovsky, "Dogmatic theology").

V. Lossky also points to the humility of God, which is embodied by his own creation:

"God, at the decisive moment of Annunciation, ascertains the rear of his humanity from Mary, his own human nature."

Thanks to Christ, incomprehensible and almighty God has become close and accessible to humans. Now through baptism we become " Particitles Divine Nature "(2 Pet 1: 4). If Christ was the only municipal son of God, now we have become his adopted children.

Saint Grigory Theologian says that

"God, becoming a man, will suffer as a person, and shook to the perception of the flesh, so that we enriched him with poverty" ("creations").

If Jesus was only a holy man, he would not be able to atone for humanity from death. This is possible only for the incarnate God.

Jesus Christ - Our Savior

Saint Rev. Feodor Studit spoke of Christ:

"He all suffered as a person, but also rissed as God, defeating the showering of the devil and save his favorite creation" ("Dobryologiy". Volume 4).

According to St. Filaret of Moscow, the recognition of the Lord Jesus Christ the Savior of the peace of sinned against the God of the world is the main strength of Christianity ("creations"). We did not have another Savior and will not.

Buddha, Mohammed and other religious leaders were mortal people trying to comprehend the Most High. Christ did not speak on behalf of God, he himself was a given to God. He is a teacher in the exclusive, most sublime sense of the word. Christ taught not only in words, he himself was a visual example of virtue. Buddha and Mohammed led the earthly life and had families. Christ, by her human nature, was morally incommensurable above any other teachers. Jesus Christ God, there was not a single sin in it. He voluntarily accepted the death for our salvation, the promotion of his tormentors.

The Lord preached only three and a half years, Buddha and Mohammed did it for decades. But in depth and elevation, the teachings of Christ exceeds any other. Muhammed had many wives. Buddha forbade his disciples to look at women. And the Christianity of the teachings about the Virgin and Marriage elevated the status of a woman. God's Mother is revered by Christians above all the saints and angels. Christ, unlike Buddha, Mohammed, Confucius, did not relieve on earthly power and universal recognition. But his sermons did not just taught people the truth. They sowed the seeds of the kingdom of God on Earth (Archpriest Alexander Men "Why is it difficult for us to believe in God").

Prayers to Lord Jesus Christ

Jesus Prayer

Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, have mercy, sinning.

Prayer of the Lord ("Our Father")

Our father, izh, at Heaven! Yes, your name will hurt, and your kingdom will take away, and will be your will, IKo in the sky and on the earth. Bread our urgent grandfather to us; And we leave us our debts, and we leave our debtor to our; And do not enter us in temptation, but you save us from Lucavago.

Prayer to the Lord to our Jesus Christ

Vladyko Lord Jesus Christ, my God, it is inevitable for the sake of your humanity at the end of the centuries in the flesh, fading from Nestodle Mary. Slavs about me Your saving industry, the slave is yours, Vladyko; Pesnovloville, His for the sake of the saint in the world of pripe; worshiping your mother's betrayal of the Mother of Mother, such a terrible secret served; I praise your angelic likshigashia, Jaco Hemes and servants of your majestic; I am pleased with the forerunner of John, you are sissing.

Lord! I read and defended the prophets; I glorify your holy apostles; The celebration and martyrs priests are your Slavs; I see the presence of yours and all the righteousness is the presentation! Takovo and Tolikago Mlogago and inextentible to the Lick of Divine in prayer to the right to you, all of God, the slave, and this, and I ask my sinners to be sake of the sake of all yours for the saints, the fairing of your holy generotes, IKO blessed. Amen.

Prayer Jesus Christ

Godko Christ God, izh's passion for your passion, my healed and ulcers, my ulcers, my unwanted, give me a lot of priest, tears to die, fucking my body from the sense of life-friendly body of yours, and enjoy my soul, honestly blood from the sorrows, Eat . The elevation is my mind to you, the dollars attracted, and it is not to imagine the abyss of death, Yako is not imaming repentance, not imam of the dignity, do not imam tears comforting, recovering children to their heritage.

Dumbfounded in everyday passion, I can't get to you in the disease, I can not warm my tears, Luga's Luisa, but, Lord, Jesus Christ, the treasure of good, give me repentance of everyone, and the heart of love in the recovery of yours, give me grace Your, and updates in me the appeals of your image. Leaves, don't leave me, I'm sore for the recovery of mine, it is elected to the package of your herd, and the sir of the sheep is chosen by your herd, raise me with them from the cerebral of the Divine Your Mysteries, the prayers of the Murdesty Mother Mother and all the saints, Amen.

JESUS ​​CHRIST (Greek ' Ιησ. ῦσ. Χρισ. όςός. ), In Christianity, the Son of God, God, who appeared in the flesh, who took the sin of a person and thus made his salvation. In the New Testament I. X. Digested symbols. Names called in Sovr. Biblical studies of Christological. Titles: Christ or Messia (Greek. Χρισ. όςός. , Μεσσίας. ), Son ( ἱόςἱός ), Son of God ( ἱἱ ς θεο. ῦ), Son of man ( ἱἱ ς ἀνθρώπου. ), Lamb ( ἀμνός. ; ἀρνίον. ), Lord ( ύύύιςς. ), The matches of God ( πα. ῖσ. θεο. ), Son of Davidov ( ἱὸςἱὸς Δαίίδ. ), Savior ( ΣΩήήή. ) and etc.


"Savior Successful." The icon of the Rostov school from the church of the introduction into the temple in Rostov is great. Con. 13 - NCH. 14 centuries. Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow).

Evidence of earthly life and teaching I. X. are the books of the New Testament, above all Gospel . Prophecies about the coming of the Savior of the world contains already sacred writing of the Old Testament. In the book of the Prophet Daniel (7: 13-14) it is said that the son will be given to the Human "power, fame and kingdom", the dominion of him forever "and his kingdom will not collapse." On the Fatings of God, who "will" will be erected by the court ", the words of God:" ... and put you in the covenant for the people, into light for the pagans ... "(Isa. 42: 1, 6). The sufferings and glory of the Son of God prophesies in the book of the Prophet Isaiah (49: 1-6; 50: 4-6; 52: 13-53: 12); "... The righteous, my servant, will justify many and sins will suffer their sins", he "... betrayed his soul to death, and the villains were adhered ..." (Is. 53: 11-12).

"Christ on the throne." Mosaic Konhi Apsida Santa Pudenciana church in Rome. 5 V.

Certificates about I. X. preserved in a number of non-Christian sources. In the "Jewish antiquities" (XX, 9, 1), Joseph Flavius ​​casually mentions Jesus, "referred to as Christ." Talking about the persecution of Christian imp. Nerona, Tacitus testifies that we are talking about the adherents of Christ, executed by Pontius by the Pilate in the time of imp. Tiberius ("Annals", XV, 44). Svetoniy talks about the expulsion of Jews from Rome Imp. Claudia ("The Life-Best Chase", "Claudius", 25, 4) in connection with the unrest related to Christ, as well as about the persecution of Christians in the time of imp. Nero (ibid, "Neron", 16). About Christians in their letters to the imp. Thracuana mentions Plinles younger. In the framework of the Jewish Relig. Tradition has Talmudich. Certificate of the circumstances of the execution of Jesus ("Santedery", 43a). Some certificates about the life of I. H., rising to rabinist. Traditions are also reflected in the Quran: Jesus (Isa) are mentioned here, his mother Maria (Maryam), disciples, there is a story related to immaculate conception (19: 16-35), an episode with a saturation of 5 thousand people. (5: 112-115), the death and ascension of Jesus are described (4: 155-157).

Christian Dogmat.

Christian dogma about I. X. Based on faith in the fact of incarnation: the Son of God perceived human nature; I. Kh. - Perfect God and a perfect person, Godhead. Two nature (or nature) in Christ are inseparable and unsalted. The Son of God perceived the human nature entirely, clearing it from sin. The fact that I. X. does not have sin, he says himself, with his opponents: "Which of you will attach me in a wrong?" (John 8:46). The disciples show about his sinlessness, following him (Act. 3:14; 1 Pet. 1:19, 2:22, 3:18; 1 in. 3: 5, 7, etc.). The Son of God was supposed to be like a person for his salvation (Heb. 2: 14-18). The reality and completeness of the human nature of the embodied words transmitted in the prologue of the Gospel from John (John 1: 1-18) The concept of "flesh" is further emphasized by clear instructions on manifestations of mankind in Christ (John 11:33, 12:27). Earth service I. X. is a stage in the sequence: the eternal being of the son, his participation in the creation of the world, earthly life as "cleansing our sins", ascension and stay "Odemonary (throne) of greatness" (Heb. 1: 3). The unity of the Son of God in eating existence and in the earthly ministry reveals Soteriological. value (see Soteriology ) The sacraments of the incarnation.

Earthly life and ministry

Van Honthorst. "Children's Children." OK. 1620. Hermitage (St. Petersburg).

Piero della Francesca. "Bacheling of Christ". Ser. 1450s. (?). National Gallery Province of Mark (Urbino).

I. H. Born by an ordinary baby, grew and developed as all people. 30 years he was in the unknown on Earth. The Gospel contains only one passage (Lux. 2: 41-50), which describes a 12-year-old pilgrimage together with adults in Jerusalem for the Easter holiday and his conversation with Moiseyev's teachers. The daily life of I. H. proceeded in the sown obedience (Lux. 2:51). The craft of his reception Father Joseph became his craft. According to the Gospel of Matthew (13:55), Countrymen of Christ call him a sack of a carpenter, and in the Gospel of Mark (6: 3) a carpenter called Jesus Christ himself.

I. Bosch. "The cross of the Cross." 1515-16. Museum of Fine Arts (Ghent).

Public ministry I. X. begins with the fact that, without needing in any cleansing, he accepted baptism from sinners John the Baptist . The baptism of John captured repentance, it was accompanied by confessing sins (MK. 1: 4) and preparing the people of Israel to the coming of the Messiah. I. X. He himself was a promised Messiah. At the bewilderment of John (Matt. 3:14), Christ corresponds to an indication of the need to "fulfill all the truth": taking the baptism of repentance, he expressed his unity with people whose sins took over. In the baptism of Christ, the phenomenon of the Triune God was accomplished: the baptism of the son, the voice of the Father, the descent of the Spirit (MF. 3: 16-17; MK. 1: 9-11; Luke 3: 21-22). The earthly ministry of Christ is essentially an Epiphany. I. Kh. Healing the patients, showed power, worked wonders - but he did not belong to the purpose of his ministry, but in the creation of the kingdom of God.

His teaching I. H. preached in all areas of Palestine, populated by Jews, Galilee, country of Gadarinskaya (Luke 8: 26-37) or Gergenesk (MF. 8: 28-34), as well as in the pagan regions - on the Phoenician coast Mediterranean m. (Matt. 15: 21-29; MK. 7: 24-31) and in Caesarea Philippova (Matt. 16:13; MK. 8:27).

S. Martini. "Christ on the throne." OK. 1341. Fresco Cathedral Notre Dame de House in Avignon.

I. H. not only interprets the Scriptures, he teaches as having power (MK. 1:22) and this leads some in embarrassment. Even students cannot answer his question: "Do you honor me for anyone?", Peter answers him: "You are Christ, the Son of God's God" (Matthew 16: 15-16). This confession of Peter changes the situation. I. H. confirms his words, saying: "... no flesh and blood discovered it, but my father, which is in heaven ..." (Mf. 16:17). Listen to Christ - it means to listen to God (Wed: MK. 9: 7). Only at I. X. Father's special attitude towards God - only he can say: "My father". Transfiguration I. X. was his phenomenon in glory visible in the brilliance of light, in white riza, in the autumn clouds (MK. 9: 2-8; MF. 17: 1-8; LC. 9: 28-36).

Resurrection of Christ. OK. 1320-21. The fresco of the apse of the southern attack of the Church of the Savior (Kachrie-Jami) in the choir (Istanbul).

I. H. came to fulfill the law and predictions of the Old Testament prophets, but the ideal of perfect love, which he was, including the "Small Sim" (i.e., to people who met on his path - to the sick, disadvantaged), incompatible with the subtleties of the Pharisee Casuistry. I. X. Constantly helps people: to be blind (MF. 9: 27-31; MK. 8: 22-26), deaf to gain rumor (Matt. 11: 5; MK. 7: 32-37), underlying to start walking (In. 5: 1-15), swelling to be cleaned (Lux 5: 12-14, 17: 11-19), etc., even resurrecting the dead (MF. 9: 18-19, 23-26; MK . 5: 35-43; Lux. 7: 11-15, 8: 49-56; in. 11: 1-44). It heals and on Saturday (MK. 3: 1-5; Luch. 13: 10-17, 14: 1-6), however, without canceling the Old Testament Law on the day (7th day of the week by Heb. Calendar), in who stopped the work, the relig was strictly performed. prescriptions. The law on Saturday contradicted Dr. Commandments (eg, the need to fulfill the service in the temple). I. H. Shows the hypocrisier of the Pharisees, turning to them with the question: "Should I do it on Saturday, or to do evil? Soul save, or destroy? " (MK. 3: 4). Jews indulge on I. X. For the violation of Saturday and are looking for to kill him for the assimilation of the Bogoshnovnaya, that is, vigorous, dignity ("Whoever does not honor the Son, he does not honor and the father who sent him" - John 5:23 ). That Jesus - Messiah, already knew his disciples. But the path of the Messiah is the path of suffering - they have not yet known. I. H. Himself understood that his close death was waiting for him (MK. 9:12; Lux. 13: 31-35) and that his death in the intention of God is a sacrificial service "for the redemption of many" (MK. 10:45).

The crucifixion on the cross was the usual Rome. execution. Condemned to death a cross on their shoulders. The image of the crossing is an image of violent death, conjugate with suffering. The path of suffering leads to glory. Messiah is the king, but his wellion, his entry into glory is due to suffering.

Resurrection of Christ - Phenomenon of other being. More than Christmas Christ и Transfiguration of the Lord It is noted by the phenomenon of light-sound glory. The descent of the angel, the type of which "was like zipper", and "Clothing ... Bela, like snow," is accompanied by an earthquake and causes horror of guards in the coffin and came to the coffin of women (MF. 28: 2-5). The body of the Resurrection Christ, like a spiritual body (Wed: 1 Cor. 15: 44-49), there is a glorified body (Wed: FLP. 3:21), it already belongs to other Being. The mystery of the resurrection exceeds human understanding and cannot be expressed in a word. Resurrection of Christ is the beginning of the resurrection of people. "If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen; And if Christ is not resurrected ... In vain and faith your "(1 Cor. 15: 13-14) - All 15th Chapter Message to Corinthians AP. Paul is devoted to the disclosure of the dogmatic essence of the Resurrection and its meaning in the save person.

Teaching Jesus Christ

I. Kh. He came to the ministry with evangelism, the Gospel (Greek. εὐαγγέλιον. ), The kingdom of God. To the expectation of the kingdom of God, the pious judaism was prepared by the promises of the Old Testament. God, the king of Israel, should have been able to realize his kingdom through the assailed anointed. The kingdom of Messianic, whose statement inevitably assumed the phenomenon of Christ, was understood by Jews in different ways: and as a restored Messiah of the Kingdom of David, that is, politicic. kingdom, and as a relig. The kingdom of heaven, were other options.

"Christ good shepherd." Between 425 and 430. Mosaic Timpan Mausoleum of Placia Galla in Ravenna.

"Christ good shepherd." Marble. 4 in. Vatican museums.

In the teachings of I. X. about the kingdom it is said about its execution in the completeness of eschatology. Keeping. In the kingdom, the meek inherit the transformed land, the accurate and eager truths will be saturated, the merciful, the peacekeepers will be asked by the sons of God (MF. 5: 3-10). In the parables I. H. About the mustard grains and the images of the kingdom of God: a mustard bush, grown out of small grain, shelters birds (MK. 13: 31-32; LC 13: 18-19); All the dough (Matt. 13:33; Luke 13: 21-22) is sickling from a small break (MF. 13: 21-22), and it is highly different from that flour into which the swax was invested. Parable about Zakvask is the essence of the kingdom as other being. Christ creates great wonders, overcoming the laws of nature. This is given anticipation of the kingdom as a phenomenon of other being, as the phenomena of the kingdom of glory.

The gospey kingdom, I. X. spoke of the moral conditions for its achievement. Proverbs about the treasure hidden in the field, and about the pearl (Matt. 13: 44-46) - instructions on the incomparable value of the kingdom exceeding the value of the earth and justifying, for the sake of achievement, all sorts, even the most difficult, victims. This is the same as the parable of the seeder (MF. 13: 3-23; MK. 4: 1-20; LC. 8: 4-18). The topic of this parable is the unequal fate of the seed sower. Some, for various reasons, remain fruitless; Others bring fruit, and this fruit is also unequal. "The seed is the Word of God" (Luke 8:11), which can bring a fruit, but may remain fruitless in the soul of man. The Word of God, in the context of the Gospel, there is a word about the kingdom (Wed: Mf. 13:11; Lux. 8: 1, 10). The moral conditions for the compassion of the kingdom are the content of the Nagorn Protection (MF. 5-7). The Nagorny Sermon systematizes the moral teachings of I. X. In the prescriptions of Moiseeva of law I. X. reveals the deep moral meaning hidden in them, exposing them to expansion (MF. 5: 21-22, 27-30), then restrictive (MF. 5: 31-32) Interpretation. In other cases, without canceling the law, he makes it impossible, putting forward a moral demand that excludes the possibility of applying the law (MF. 5: 33-36). Canceling Retribution law (Matt. 5: 38-42) and demanding love for enemies (Matt. 5: 43-48), I. H. Drawn not to the books of the lawn, but to the highest revelations of the Old Testament in the books of prophetic and teachers. I. X. does not cancel the moral teachings of the Old Testament, but the perfect requirements that it opposes the law corresponds to their execution at the end of times. Continuing to act in history, the law is thus canceled superior to its eschatological performance.

Titian. "Caesar Dynarion". 1518. Art Gallery (Dresden).

J. Vermer. "Christ of Martha and Mary." 1654-55. National Gallery of Scotland (Edinburgh).

The Nagorny Sermon, sometimes called "on-site equal" ("... He became in the exact location ..." - Lux. 6: 17-49), is social in nature: after the promise of bliss by the beggar, sharpening, crying, persecuted in it as a warning is headed " Mountain ":" Mount you, rich "(Luke 6:24)," Mount you, scribes and Pharisees "(Luke 11:44). The proclamation of "grief" is announced by eschatology. The verdict of the court of God, but their true goal is not condemnation, but the call for repentance. In evangelists, this appeal is expressed in different ways. In the gospel of Luke emphasizes the criticism of the highest layer of society; For 4 "Bliss" follow 4 proclamations of "Grief" (Luke 6: 24-26): the "all people" speak the rich, pleasant, laughing and topics. In the Gospel of Matthew Call to repentance is directed. To the educated layer of society: the moral sermon begins to the proclaiming of "bliss" by the poor spirit (5: 3-12) and ends with the granting of "grief" of scribes and Pharisees (23:23). However, the appeal to repentance affects the basis of a person's life and concerns all people.

The condemnation of wealth as such contains the parable of the wrong guide (LC. 16: 1-9). It says about "unrighteous wealth" (Greek. μαμων. ᾶσ. τῆσ. ἀδικίας. - LC. 16: 9, 11). Every wealth is unparalleled, because it is temporarily, long, and it should be used for mercy to save the soul. In the parable, the important religious and ethical and social benefits are emphasized, with which wealth should be used, and it is not indifferent to how it was purchased. SVT. John Zlatoust in the comments on the gospel of John distinguishes the charity from the righteous and unrighteous source, arguing that if one drop of inappropriate will fall into the great many property, then it is all deficiencies.

Ya. Tintoretto. "Procession on the waters." OK. 1560. National Art Gallery (Washington).

The ideal of moral perfection, to which the disciples of Christ are called, - Heavenly Father. This ideal is the ideal of love (Wed: Matt. 5:48). The same thought expresses the twofold commandment of love: love for God and love to neighbor (MF. 22: 35-40; MK. 12: 28-31; Wed: Luch. 10: 25-28), and the second commandment is similar ( MF. 22:39; MK. 12:31). Internal Communication of both commandments is revealed to Dogmatch. The teaching of the Gospel of John. God so loved the world, which gave the son of his only society, "so that he believed in him, did not die, but had the eternal life" (John 3:16). Having emphasizing his love and love of God to people and calling for their followers to love God, I. X. insists on the need to love others. On the eve of the execution, he turns to students with the words: "The commandment I give you a new one, but love each other ..." - and promises that people recognize in them his students if they "have love between them" (John 13:34 -35). Christian doing is an expression of love. At the end, due to the growth of lawlessness, "love will cool in many" (Matt. 24:12), but preserved it will be saved (Wed: Mf. 24:13).

Caravaggio. "The vocation of the apostle Matthew." 1599-1600. Konpelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi-de-Francise in Rome.

Salvation is giving life and resurrection from the dead. This is evidenced by the conversation of Christ with Jews (in. 5: 19-30) after the healing of the patient in Jerusalem in the bathhouse at the sheep's gate (John 5: 1-14). Healing the patient has the meaning of symbolism. The act of returning to the completeness of life through faith and the forgiveness of sins ("Here, you recovered; not sin more ..."). Christ says more than once about the salvation of faith: faith saved the lessed Samaryanin (Luke. 17:19); Vera received the forgiveness of the Jericho blind (Luke. 18:42); Salvation is due to faith (Luke. 7:50). In the concept of the world, the salvation of which the Father wishes (Wed: 1 John 4:14), some completeness is captured: not saving off. People withdrawn from the world, and the salvation of the world as a whole (Wed: 1 Tim. 2: 4, 4:10).

The condition of salvation is doing. The Lord, who appeared in glory, refuses to recognize the "deeers of untrue" (Luke 13:27). On the contrary, the Kingdom of God will include "Pravda Devils". "Close gates" (Luke 13:24; Wed "Narrow Path" in MF. 7:14) - This is the need for effort, a volitional desire in which faith is manifested. A call to all renunciation (Matt. 16: 24-25) is adjusted in the parables (Luke. 15: 1-7, 8-10, 11-32): about the missing sheep, about lost drachma and the prodigal son. God will recover lost and accepting. From one hundred "sheep" disappeared and found him more expensive than those ninety-nine, who remained with him. Father's love for a prodigal son, when he returns home, flashes brighter with love for his older brother, who did not stop serving his father and never crime his orders.

The union of students around the teacher has ever more and more issued as a church. The beginning of the organization refers to the Galilee period: allocation of twelve students (MK. 3: 13-14; see Apostles ) and attracting them to ministry. It is to them Secret evening , the last Easter meal in front of the signs of suffering, I. X. refracts the bread and gives wine with the words: "... Press, fly; This is my body my ... this is the blood of my new covenant ... "(MK. 14: 22-23), Waving:" ... we create in my memory "(Luke 22:19). The Christian Church took it like Eucharistic. Sacrament (see Eucharist ) And as the communion of holy gifts (the body and blood of Christ). The term "church" (Greek. ἐκκλησία. ) Twice meets in the Gospel of Matthew. For the first time - in the answer of Christ for the confession of Peter (16:18) - he refers to the Church of the Universal: "You are Peter, and I will create a church on this stone, and the gates of hell will not overcome it"; For the second time (18:17), they denote by the group, the community of believers, which in modern conditions would correspond to the local church.

The beginning of the organization of the church was committed during the path of Christ for suffering and death. This path was to the statement of the kingdom, and the church is a kingdom in his earthly aspect. The words of Christ "The kingdom of God are inside you" (Luke 17:21) - words about the church. And in Jerusalem conversations, he spoke about the sacrificial feat of a shepherd-son for her flock of his sheep, who thinks to him as a single herd of a single shepherd (in. 10: 1-18). The teachings of students who stood in the crowd were to show the people's importance of students like shepherds of the herd of the church. Multiplying the number of its followers at the beginning of the path, I. X. Two interlocutors from three speak directly about the kingdom of God as the purpose of their ministry (LC. 9: 60-62). Complete self-denial to which, on their own. An example, he calls on the first interlocutor, in context, inevitably implies the desire for the kingdom (Lux. 9:58). Investing seventy in the presence of the Second Coming of Christ, there is also an intention of the kingdom (Lux 10: 9-11). In the teachings to whom the Lord accompanies their messenger, an indication of the kingdom is based on. The content of their sermon.

Christian Yersieces

Conference relative to the nature of I. X. led to the retreat from Orthodox confession, to the appearance of heresies. The delusions relate to the Divine I. H., His humanity and the compounds of these two natures in Christ. The deity was completely rejected in Christ in the Apostolic Age of Gnostics Kerinf and Evion, in 2nd. - Carpokrat, Feodot, ARTEMEN, 3 V. - Pavel Samosatsky, condemned by two antihih columns (264 and 270). They all believed I. Kh. Just a man broken from Joseph and Mary, "heresy received condemnation in the very symbol of faith (" embodied from the Spirit of the Holy and Mary of Virgin "), adopted by the 2nd Ecumenical Cathedral. Those who, although they did not consider I. X. Only a person, recognizing that the Son of God was embodied in him, but they believed that this was not born of his father's son of God, but created and therefore not having Divine Nature, - Such is the heresy Arianism , condemned by the 1st Ecumenical Cathedral (325), and various Arian sense. Finally, Patriasian and AntitriNitarians admitted that in I. X. God embodied, but not the Son of God, and God Father or the entire Holy Trinity, - this heresy was repeatedly condemned in 2-3 centuries.

Regarding humanity I. H. Some believed that he had no flesh, but only a ghostly body, - this heresy Docotism Recruitment already in the messages of St. ap. John the Bogosla (1 in. 4: 2-3; 2 in. 1-7). Others - representatives of various sects ( Gnosticism , Manicoesee ) - I was believed that I. H. had heavenly, the spiritual body, with whom he only passed through the womb of the Virgin Mary, without receiving the flesh from her. Against this heresy performed St. ap. John theologian, Schshchmch. Ignatius Godpherd, Schshmch. Irina Lyon, Turrtullian, etc. Third refused by I. X. In the perception of the human soul or although they recognized that I. H. perceived the human soul, but only a sensual, not perceiving the mind or spirit, - this heresy of Apollinaria and his followers (see . Apollinarianism ) It was convicted by Alexandria (362), Roman (376, 377, 382) and the 2nd universal (381) cathedrals.

Yersieces Non-traditional , Evtichianship, Monophizite And monobhelitis proceed from delusions relating to the compound of two natures (or native) in Christ - Divine and Human. Nestorian shared Nature in Christ: A simple man of Christ was born from Mary, with whom God was connected only in an exterior, morally, therefore Christ is a gogonymer, and not the Board and the Most High Virgo - only Christorrod, and not the Virgin. The opposite extreme - Evtichiance completely merged nature in Christ: Humanity was absorbed by the deity with a piped joint; The followers of Evtichian received the name of Monophysites (Greek. όόνος. - one and Φύσις. - nature); As a branch of the monophimitism, heresy of monobhelitism appeared (Greek. έέλημα. - Will), who believes in Christ, though two nature, but one will, one action. Monophiziteness was convicted of the 4th Ecumenical (Chalkidon) Cathedral (451), Monobhelitism - the 6th Ecumenical Cathedral (680-681). According to the heresy of adoptsianship, essentially weathered two nature on two faces in Christ, I. Kh. - Son God is not his own, but adopted (Lat. Adoptivus) by grace.

Biblical criticism of Jesus Christ

In the literature about I. X. in the West, starting with the era Enlightenment There were two landings. Directions - mythological and historical. Representatives of mythologies. Directions consider I. H. Mafich. The manner created on the basis of teke. beliefs or agriculture. Cults, like cults Osiris, Dionysus, Adonis, etc., or interpret its image from the point of view of solar-astral representations. Evangelical stories about life and wonderful acts I. X. are considered as borrowing the myths from ancient religions, from the Old Testament Lit-Ry. In I. H., as in the mythological similar to him. Images, representatives of the solar-astral concept saw the solar deity: it is born on December 25 (the turn of the Sun for the Spring after the Winter Solstice), it wanders on the ground, accompanied by the 12 Apostles (one-year way of the Sun through 12 zodiac constellations), dies and resurrect for the 3rd day (3-day new moon, when the moon is not visible, and then again "resurrect"), etc. This concept was most characteristic for the initial stage of development of mythologies. Theories (Franz. Enlighteners S. F. Dupyui, K. F. Volyna ) And in the 20th century. There were only a few supporters (among them - Polish. Scientific A. Nemoevsky, Franz. - P. Kush). The largest representatives of mythologies. Directions in con. 19-20 centuries. - Him. Philosopher A. Trezov, English The historian of early Christianity J. M. Robertson and others. The image of I. X. compared with them with the images of "Savior", the divine "healers" of ancient times.-Mythological systems; Attention is drawn to the combination of faith in the "Savior" who occur in many religions with the idea of ​​the dying and resurrect God; The connection between the episodes of the Earth Life I. H. with resistant mythologies. plots (the story of the birth of I. X. and the wonderful salvation of the baby finds analogy in Egypt. Myth about Mount and Sayte, in Assyrian - about Tsar Sargon, in Judaistic - about Moses, in Indian - about Krishna, etc.); with I. X. Images of Agni, Krishna, Mithra et al.; There is a link between Christian symbols with the symbolism of the Doharistian (fish as a symbol of many firewood deities, a cross as a symbol of the resurrection and a new life, etc.). Sometimes in myth about I. H. see the version of the legend of the Buddha. Toteming echoes. beliefs seen in the myth of the immaculate conception of I. Kh. Virgin Maria; In the sacrament of the communion of the body and blood of Christ - eating the Jews of the Easter Lamb. On the views of MN. Representatives of mythologies. The directions influenced the idea of ​​J. Frezer about Magich. rites as a source of religion; The content of the Gospels was understood as a cult myth telling about real or symbolism. The killing of the human sacrifice suffering and resurrecting God.

The life-giving cross of the Lord. Tree. 15 V. Church of John Zlatoust in the village of Godenovo (Yaroslavl region).

Representatives of historic. Directions believe that the basis of the image of I. X. is historic. personality; The development of the image I. H., they consider, went in the direction opposite to how mythological represents. School, i.e., the mythology of historical was happening. Personality, deification of Jesus, who really existed preacher of Nazareth, the image of which, as the number of adherents herself, was increasingly endowed mythologies. features. For the first attempts to recreate the biography of the "Jesus-Human" with its own rationalist enlightenment. The approach, lack of historicism (in 18th century - it. Theologist G. S. Reimar, Swiss. Theologian J. Gess, etc.); The same traits are characteristic of the appeared in 19 V. "Life of Jesus" E. Renan written in the form of a novel. Renan exposed in detail the gospel plot, rejecting everything impossible impossible, and offered several. hypothetical. options for explaining events. The first lectures "On the life of Jesus" were read by F. Shleiermacher, who gave a rational description of the identity of Jesus (awareness of Jesus, that God attended him).

Starting with t. N. Tübingen school scientists. Biblical Consideration of the issue of historicity I. H. is associated with the distribution of the Rationalist method. Critics of New Testament texts. The first means. The study of this kind was the "life of Jesus" (vol. 1-2, 1835-1836) D. F. Straus, who tried to separate the "historical. Jesus "from his mythic. Stories (for the first time used in relation to Christianity the word "myth") and show the process of mythologization of live validity. He criticized the lectures of F. Shleiermakhra, saying that he admits supernatural in Christology, and in criticism and exegetic acts as rationalist. Strauss saw his task in which, throwing mythic. layering, "Restore the image of historical. Jesus in his human features. " In the same direction, A. von Garnak was worked and A. Luisi with him.

From the 1920s. As part of the historic. Schools occur on t. formal criticism, i.e. literary criticism. Analysis of genre forms in New Testament texts (M. Dibelius, R. Bultman ). Connection of this method with philos. Prerequisites for existentialism spawned the conceptman concept based on a sharp compartment "Histor. Jesus "(in Bhuldmana, we don't know anything about him) from Christ, with whom it has a faith; For the latter, only the situation of existential choice, which is the Christian Kerigma man (Greek. ήήρυΓμα. - An exploratory), in the New Testament it is clothed in mythologies. Language, but now it should be perceived separately from this language (the problem of "demi-physicalization"). Historic. The school is represented. Protestant theologists who, throwing the stories about "wonders" (or giving them rationalist. Explanation), retained what they do not contradict; The bibleists of this direction have made a great contribution to the critical study of the Gospels and other texts of the Holy Scriptures. The historical direction belongs to some of the Jewish (for example, I. Clausener, who gave the image of I. X. from the standpoint of Heb. Nationalism) and Catholic (F. Moriac et al.) Researchers; The latter received greater freedom in criticism and interpretation of texts after Vatican II Cathedral who was allowed under the influence of the success of scientific biblical to interpret those or other places of Holy Scripture as allegorical.


"Do not cry Mother Mati." Icon 14 V. Monastery Great Meteor (Meteor, Greece).

"Christ punch". Mosaic of the Central Dome of the Church of the Assumption of Our Lady in Daphny (Athens). OK. 1100.

Images of I. H., which with con. 1 in. Appear in painting Rome. Catacombs and on sarcophagas, can be divided into 3 types: historical (in the guise of an adult husband; Catacomma of St. Domicilla in Rome, OK. 340), Picture (in the form of a young man; Carving on sarcophagas 3 in., Lateran Museum, Vatican) and symbolic museum (in the form of a kind shepherd, Orpheus, God Helios, anchors, fish, lamb; Rome. Catacombs of Saints Callistist, Lucina, Priscills, etc.). With 4th century, after the cessation of persecution of Christians, most symbolism. I. X. images came out of use. The decisions of the Trill Cathedral (691-692) were prescribed to depict I. X. in human appearance. The historic was dominant. Type, with the right features of the face, long dark hair and rounded beard (Mosaic of Santa Pudencian churches in Rome, 5th century, Santp Apollinar-Nuovo in Ravenna, 6th century; icon from Mont. St. Catherine on Sinai, 6 in .). This type of image is also dominant in scenes and cycles of the earthly life of I. H., starting with Roman's painting. Caucasomb and Baptistery in the dura-Europar (3 century). Ordinary clothes I. H. - Purple Chiton with a golden band-claw and blue gymatic raincoat; His chapter surrounds the nimbe with the inscribed cross. At the crossroads from 11 c. Place the letters "  ὤν"(Jeans).

V. M. Vasnetsov. "Christ Almighty." 1885-96. Fresco of the Central Dome of the Vladimir Cathedral in Kiev.

OSN. Historial option. Type - "Christ Pantokrator" ("Almighty"), which in his left hand holds a scroll or gospel (closed or opened), right - usually blesses (Baptistery mosaic in Naples, 5 V.; Miniature of Justina II, 565-578). Pantokrators were portrayed on the throne-throne (Mosaic C. San Vitaly in Ravenne, 546-547; Menology of Vasily I Macedonianine, 867-886), standing (fresco c. Saints of nonsense in Castoria, Greece, 11-12 centuries), On the belt or sophisticated (dome mosaic of the Sofia Cathedral in Kiev, the 1st floor. 11th century; c. Assumption of Our Lady in Daphni in Athens, approx. 1100). The image of Christ of the Almighty is found at the Depth. icons, composed Deesus , center. Temple Dome, in the Konhe altar apse, etc. (see Ill. To Art. Byzantium ). To historic. The type refers to the "New Troita Trinity", where I. H. Smears the Odessa Father. The same type belongs to the images of I. X. In infancy, on the hands of Our Lady or in the "Christian Christmas". The images of the Baby Christ without the Virgin Mary, which can be attributed to both the historical and to the transformative type, are rarely found and only in Western art, mainly in plastic (Church of the Dominican Mont. In Medingen, 1344; Altar of the Holy Gifts in C. San Lorenzo in Florence, sculptor Deziderio da Setgnano , 1461-62).

"Fatherland". Icon of the Novgorod school. Con. 14th century Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow).

To historic. The type also belongs to the image "saved the wrong". According to the legend known from the 5th century, the image was miraculously imprinted on the board, which I. Kh. Returns his face and handed the messenger to the patient with a leprosy Tsar Avgar. Plant-remotion, or mandilion, placed over the gates of the city of Edess and after a while laid the tiles to save from the destruction. In the tiled-ceramic, he was also printed a non-homing person, which marked the beginning of the iconography "Savior on Chropiai." Perhaps Lick I. X. was long and narrow, with a wedge-shaped beard and pointed ends of strands, as on the "True Image" icon ("Vera Icona", or "Veronica") from the Vatican (up to 1208). The echo of this physiognomic type is likely to be Rus. The burns "saved wet brother," where the beard of Christ converges in one subtle tip. Images "saved in Ullus" and "Savior on Chropia" was placed at the base of the dome drum of the temples. Circle (tradition, possibly rising to the original decoration of the Constantinople church of St. Sofia). In Western (from the 12th century) and the post-sanitary iconography, there is an option where the head of the Savior is crowned with a thorns crown. This option received named. "Caps of Veronica," because, according to legend, the Lick Jesus was imprinted in Development, given by the pious wife of Veronica Christ, when he was led by the execution.

"Christ wisdom of God." Icon. 14th century Byzantine Museum (Athens).

A number of images taken almost exclusively in the Orthodox Church include a generic (symbolic) type: "Savior Emmanuel", "Christ's Old Day", "saved", "saved the great bishop", "Jesus Christ King King", "Non-Indeed Oko "," Angel of the Great Council "," Savior Good Silence "," Sofia Wisdom of God "and some others. The name of Christ Emmanuel is based on the words of the Prophet Isaiah:" So the Lord himself will give you a sign: Sea, Virgin in the womb ... And he will be named after him: Emmanuel "(Is. 7:14). Initially, the word "Emmanuel" was treated as a form of young Christ (Ampoule from Monza, 6th century; Fragment of the Coptic Icon, 6-7 centners, the Museum of Benaki, Athens) and the image of Christ the Almighty. From the 12th century It fastened behind the images of the Christ-Camera (Mosaic of Santa Maria-Nova's Cathedrals in Montreal in Sicily, 1180-94, and St. Mark in Venice, Ok. 1200, 1220-30). The image of Christ-Emmanuil is interpreted as an image of the eternal Logos - the Son of God to the incarnation. Iconography is found in the form of self. images (including Space Emmanuil on the throne; fresco ts. Annunciation in arcales in Novgorod, 1189), with archangels or prophets (fresco c. Saints of nonsense in the Castoria, 11-12 centuries; Icon "Savior Emmanuel with Archangels »From the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, 12th century, GTG), as well as in the compositions" Cathedral of the Archangelov "," Our Lady Nikopey "," Our Lady Sign (embodiment) "," Holy Trinity "(in the Fatherland version), where Christ -Emmanuel is shown blessing, usually in a round brand-medallion.

A special variety of images I. H. As an Emmanuel's excuses represents the Iconography "Non-Independent Oko": I. Kh. Related on the bed, he is coming to the Mother of God and Angel. Originally occurs as an illustration of the 44th Psalm (Utrecht Psalm, between 816-834, B-ka Utrecht UN-TA, Netherlands), from the 14th century. as an alteration. Compositions (frescoes in the Sandat Temple on Athos, beginning. 14th century; in C. Archangels in Lesnova, Serbia, between 1341 and 1349). Its meaning reveal the words of the 120th Psalm on the European Trusteeship of God over the human race: "... no sleep and not sleeping by Israel" (Ps. 120: 4). In the Latezantine painting, the composition included commenting motives - lion (which, according to the ideas of the CP.-century. "Physiologists", sleeping with open eyes), Prophets, Magi (fresco in Mont. Manassea, Serbia, 1st Even. 15 V. ). To rus. The icons of this plot the background serves the vegetation of the paradise garden (icon from the Museums of the Moscow Kremlin, 16th century).

"Christ is old days" - I. X. in the appearance of the gray-haired senior. A similar image arose thanks to the submission of the son of Son Father. The elder Christ, unlike Lord Savaof, has baptized Nimbi and the usual inscription "IS HS" (miniature from Job's book, Patmos, 9th century; fresco with Deesus in C. St. Nicholas Kasitisa in Castoria, 2nd floor. 12th century, etc.).

Andrei Rublev with assistants. "Salmon in the forces." 1408. The central icon of Deesus from the iconostasis of the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir. Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow).

The icons "saved in the forces" I. H. Smears on the throne surrounded by the heavenly forces and symbols of evangelists, against the background of the 8-end star formed by one on another red and blue diamonds. He blesses, holding a revealed gospel. Iconography is based on the description of the visions of Ezekiel (Iz. 1: 4-28, 10: 1-22), Isaiah (Isa. 6: 1-4, 11: 4) and John the Bogosla (Rev. 4: 2-3, 6- nine). Different options for this iconography ("Christ in Glory", or "Majestas Domini", "Divine Majesty") are found. In miniatures (Trier's Psalm, 2nd floor. 9th century; Vienna Gospel, 1109, etc.), but the first sample of the type described is the center. Icon of the Deesus China of the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin [Last Chetve. 14th century, Feofan Greek (?)]. From this time, "Savior in the Forces" occupies the center. The place in the full-phigure deesus ranks of the Moscow Izov (in Novgorod Deesus, the type of "Christ Altage" is preserved). The appearance and distribution of the image "Savior in the Forces" was caused by the visual embodiment in it both ch. The ideas of the deesus rank are the glorification of the Lord and the onset of a terrible court.

"Savior Ieria." Mosaic of the Sofia Cathedral in Kiev. OK. Ser. 11 V.

S. F. Ushakov. "Christ Great Bishops." 1656-57. Historical Museum (Moscow).

I. H. As a priest, with short hair and shine, headed by the Humenitz, was depicted according to the words of Tsar David (Ps. 109: 4): "... You are a priest forever according to the rank of Melchizedek" (Mosaic of the Sofia Cathedral in Kiev, OK. Ser . 11th century; dome fresco C. St. Panteleimon in Narrow, Macedonia, 1164). At the turn of 12-13 centuries. An option "Jesus Christ Great Bishop" appears, where I. X. is shown in bishops (arthow Panagia from Mont. Csiffots on Athos), soon the displacing the image of the priest of Christ. From the 14th century The composition of the "presence of the queen", with I. H., ascending on the throne in the bishop closure; He is coming the Mother of God in royal clothes and John the Forerunner (Icon from the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin). Similar images can be considered as an option of Deesus. In the Latezantine and Postzantine Iconopy, there are deposited. Images of I. X. in the bishop closure (an early example - the fresco of C. Archangels in Lesnova, Serbia, between 1341 and 1349). Such iconography is based on the words of the AP. Paul about I. Kh. - High Priest and Great Bishop, who has passed heaven (Heb. 4:14). Usually, the icon "Great Bishop" occupied a place in the center of the Deesus rank or to the right of the royal gates, as well as in the altar, over the mining site.

Iconography "Jesus Christ King King" dates back to the text of the Apocalypse (Rev. 19: 11-17), describing I. H. Like the king of the kings and the Lord dominating. I. Kh. Depicted on the throne, in imp. Clouds (less often in red clothing) and in a multi-tiered crown, with a rod (scepter), sometimes with a sword emanating from the mouth (iconostasis iconostasis of the Arkhangelsk Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, 1679-80). Similar icons appear in post -anzantine iconography and often have off. The features of the iconography of the Great Bitch (eg, the attributes of the royal authorities are combined with the bishop). This, obviously, was associated with the desire to imagine the fullness of the authorities and the glory of I. H. - Tsar and the High Priest. In the iconopus of the new time, Christ sometimes is endowed not only by a scepter, but also by the power (icon from the iconostasis of the Petropavlovsky Cathedral in St. Petersburg, A. M. Pospelov with comrades, approx. 1727).

"Saving a good silence." Icon of Pomeranian letters from the Vygovaya Old Believer Desert. 19th century Historical Museum (Moscow).

I. X. in Angelic appearance, in Glava-Mandorle and with the staff for the first time, presented at a miniature from the "words of Grigoria Naziazin" (880-883, National. B-ka, Paris). At 13th century Its images appear in Arkhangelsk clothes (fresco c. St. Clement in Ohrid, approx. 1294-1295). One of the options for this iconography is called "Angel of the Great Council", according to Isai's prophecy (Isa. 9: 6), usually occurs in the scenes "Creation of the World" and "Terrchy Court" ("Earth Earth"), marching the Son Father. Dr. The option is "saved the good silence", with arms crossed on the first, at the beginning without wings (the fresco of the altar barrier of the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, 1481 or 1513-15), later in the imp. Dalmatics, with wings and star nimbers (icon from the iconostasis c. Ilya Prophet in Yaroslavl, 17 century). This iconography, obviously, also goes back to the prophecy of Isaiah about Christ as an eternal sacrifice: "... as a lamb prevaining his shamelessly, so he did not clarify his mouth" (Isa. 53: 7). In the image of the flame angel in the royal clothes I. Kh. It appears in the composition "Sofia's wisdom of God" (Novgorod region) to the text of the Old Testament parable: "The wisdom built a house for himself, outstanding seven pillars ... She said:" Go, eat my bread and drink Wine, me dissolved ... "" (Proverb. 9: 1-5). On the interpretation of the AP. Paul, in parable, allegorically talks about Christ, who is God's power and God's wisdom (1 Cor. 1: 18-30); PS Kosma Mayymsky I interpreted the construction of the house of wisdom as the creation of flesh I. X. in the womb of the Virgin. Angela-Sofia is coming the winged Mother of God and John the Forerunner, on the head of the angel is the image of I. X. in his New Testament "historical" appearance. I. Kh. Sometimes in the image of Emmanuel's rescue in a medallion, who holds the Virgin. GL The content of iconography is the embodiment of the wisdom of God, the descent of it to the Earth in the human appearance. In rus. Interpretations of the plot are already from the 15th century. OSN. The idea is the praise of Nity, personified by an angel ("To make the lament of the face of Devich Fire"); The wings of Our Lady and the Forerunners are a symbol of their angelic lives.

An image of I. X. is an image in the form of a "baby on Diskos" - Eucharistic. Lamb (from 13th century), or in the appearance of a husband on the aer-air (fresco century St. George in Kursinov, Macedonia, 1191) in the composition "Service of the Holy Fathers", placed in the altar. Figure I. X. In this case, replaces Eucharistic. Bread, clearly revealing his body value of Christ.

In addition to those listed, there was a number of low-prostrated iconographic. Options: "Christ-winner, Pouring aspid and Vasilisk" (relief on a plate of ivory, 9th century, Oxford bk), "Christ-warrior" ("Four-State" icon from the Annunciation of the Moscow Kremlin, 1560s .), "Crucified Christ in Lona Fueper" (Miniature from Chronicle Editing Theodore, Cologne, 1155-65), "Christ-Vinogradar" and others.

P. Veronese. "Marriage in Cana Galilee." 1562-63. Louvre (Paris).

I. N. Kramskaya. "Christ in the desert." 1872. Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow).

The image of I. H. is located in the center of MN. Plots of New Testament iconography. Evangelical plots, Osn. iconography. The types of which have been formed already in the early Christian lawsuit, are grouped into several. Cycles: Childhood and Advocacy (Christmas of Christ, "Worship of Magi", Presentation of the Lord , "Flight to Egypt", "Christ talks with scribes", as well Holy Family ), earthly ministry ( Baptism of the Lord , the temptations of Christ, the vocation of the apostles, the transformation of the Lord, "the expulsion of trading from the temple"), miracles ("Marriage in Cana Galilee", "Christ and Samarita", "Healing of the Blind", "Resurrection of Lazarus", etc.). Self. The cycle is made Passion of Christ , from the entrance of the Lord in Jerusalem to the "position in the coffin" (with the scenes, the Layer Supper, "Miliation of the Bow", "Taking Christ's detention", "Bichy", "Razeing Christ", "The Cross", Crucifixion , "Removing from the Cross" and others). "Descent to hell" and the resurrection of Christ complete the Earth's life of I. H. Events of the evangelical history between the resurrection and Ascension of the Lord They are captured in the plots "Do not touch me", "The Supper in Emmaus", "Unbelief of Foma" and others. Combining each other and with Old Testament plots on certain principles, these plots made up iconographic. Programs of monumental temple paintings, sculptural temple decoration, illuminated manuscripts, etc. Each of the iconographic. Types can be presented and outside the cycle, in deposit. icon, altar image or, as in painting a new time, in the picture.

Who was Jesus Christ, even children know.

Who was Jesus Christ, even children know.

Photo: Evgenia Guseva

Yesterday, January 7th. Orthodox from around the world celebrated Christmas Christ. It seems about who Jesus Christ is not necessary to say: it is known to all with a diaper.

But what do we know about historical Jesus?

Foreign scientists this question worries quite a long time. Unfortunately, in Russian, not so much is written on this topic. The book "Jesus. Historical investigation" Latin, built on scandalous and minor facts, does not count. Much more objectively and scientific research of Gleb Jastrebov, "Who was Jesus from Nazareth", and from foreign sources the key is considered the work of Jesus David Flousra.

In turn, we leading to this article, relied on books, as well as public lectures famous religion, candidate culturology Konstantin Mikhailov

Jesus - Real Historical Personality

Having spent many years of research, scientists came to the conclusion that Jesus really existed. Funny, about it and so know all believers. But scientists are on the same scientists that they need to doubt and prove everything. And in the case of Jesus, the evidence requires more. Such a paradox. About 99 percent of antiquity characters Scientists are an order of magnitude less than Jesus, but at the same time do not experience the slightest doubts that they existed. For example, it does not touch anyone to doubt the existence of Pythagora, although the only early biography of Pytagora was written later than a century after his death.

- Whether it is absolutely any historical person, we would say, the father, for the first century character, we have hundreds of documents of documents., But scientists will always argue about Jesus precisely because it is Jesus, "Religicaes Konstantin Mikhailov explained incomprehensible.

Who first wrote about Jesus

We have no texts of Jesus. Therefore, researchers rely on documents written after the crucifixion. The earliest is the message of the Apostle Paul, created in 30 years. Biographical information in this source is quite small, because the Apostle Paul turns to the members of the Christian community, those who know everything so well.

An image of Christ on a crucifixion in a Catholic temple.

Photo: Global Look Press

The second source is the new Testament. As you know, it includes four Gospels, of which the earliest - from the brand, was created at about 60-70 years. Ten years later, the Gospel was written from Matthew. Another decade later - from Luke. They are historians and rely on them. The most recent - the gospel of John - was created 70 years after the crucifixion. Therefore, it is referred to as sources of the second row.

Mysterious protoist company Q.

There is another source that no one has ever seen, but nevertheless, it was possible to reconstruct. When the researchers merged the Gospel of Matthew, from Luke and from Mark, they found interesting. In the Gospels from Matthew and from Luke there are common episodes that are not in the oldest Gospel of Mark. These are very important episodes, such as a Nagorni sermon. In the Gospel of Matthew, it begins in words: "Blessed in the spirit of the Spirit for their kingdom of heaven." In the gospel of Luke a little different: "Blessed beggars for them are the kingdom of heaven." It seems that, yes, not that. Where is the spirit?

In general, the examples were enough to understand: Matthew and Luke relied on a kind of protoevogengelium. Perhaps the text is remembered and passed orally. This causes a discrepancy.

The gospel of Mark, the mysterious protoevogenium q and the message of the Apostle Paul are three pillar, which is the study of historical Jesus.

It is curious that already in the twentieth century, scientists managed to discover the gospel of the Thoma, the first versions of which, apparently, were created in the 70-80 years of the I century, that is, at about the same, when the gospel of Mark. This is also very interesting for studying the gospel, despite the fact that there is no description of the biography of Jesus: mainly sermons and speeches.

Historic Christ was born before Christmas?

Incomprehensible continues. It seems to be, everyone knows when Jesus was born: how - in no way from the Nativity of Christ we count our era. However, on the fact of the exact date we do not know. Evangelicals write that Jesus was born on the board of Herod of the Great. Then, considering that Herod died in 4th to our era, we get that Jesus was born before the Nativity of Christ, oddly enough voiced. Also, the Gospel reports that Jesus was born during the period of the Roman census of Judea. But the only census suitable in time is dating 5-6 a year of our era. Then it turns out that Jesus was born after Christmas.

True, historians still suggest that Jesus was born during the reign of Herod of the Great, that is, no later than 4 years before our era.

Now it concerns the date of birth. It is also difficult with her, for scientists are not sure that this is December 24-25, as it is considered. It is known that early Christians celebrated the birth of Jesus in April and May, and subsequently adopted Roman dates: at the end of December, the Romans celebrated the key holiday of the worship of the invincible sun. The idea of ​​invincible light, triumphant over darkness, and Christians, so, most likely, they tied the birth of Jesus to these days.

The same with the end of the earthly life. We know that this is the middle of Pesha, the middle of the month is Nisan, but how much Jesus lived - a mystery. It seems, really 33 years old, but nowhere in the New Testament does not say that.

Where Jesus was born

Some bibleists say that in Bethlehem, others - what's in Nazareth. True, those that say that in Bethlehem - everywhere they call him Jesus Nazarenin, it means that Nazareth is significantly.

There are almost no information about the orphanages of Jesus. The early period of the life of Christ, before his thirties (at about this age he began to preach) - practically not covered by the attention of evangelists.

The face of Christ during the construction of the main church of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Photo: Vladimir Demchenko

Immaculate conception

No one puts the task of refuting or evidence of the idea of ​​a imminible conception. However, neither the Evangelist Mark, nor Paul or even John do not write anything about it, but the Apostle Paul says that Jesus was the seed of David in the flesh, that is, the male line took place from the king of David. In addition, as the researchers say, the Jews have no idea of ​​vicious conception at all.

"Most likely, this idea arose later, in the 60-70 years of the first century, when the most part of the early Christian community was to make up former pagans," Religica says. - They understood that unusual heroes should be born in an unusual way. For example, they talked about the immaculate conception of Plato and Octavian August, the emperor, during which Christ was born. Moreover, the parents of August were perfectly known.

Not a carpenter, but a mason

Historians do not argue with the fact that Joseph's parents called Joseph and Maria, that Christ was born and grew up, most likely, in Nazareth, although at a later age he lived in the city of Capernaum, because this city was the center of his sermons. The family was simple and not too secured. But with the fact that Joseph was a carpenter - religious scientists do not very much. Most likely - he was a mason. After all, the Greek term denoting the profession of Joseph means and carpenter, and a joiner, and a man working with the metal. And considering that the family lived not in the wooded, but in the desert terrain, it was unlikely that it was unlikely that the carpenter had a lot of work.

Native or cousins?

The family had to be big, at least, the Jewish traditions imply that children should be a lot. For brothers and sisters, indicates the gospel. In the ancient Gospel from Mark there is a mention of Brother Jacob, Joseph, Jude, Simone and, at least two sisters. That is what the Protestants believes. But within the framework of the Catholic tradition, it is customary to be considered with cousins. In Orthodoxy, it is more difficult: there was a point of view that this is the children of Joseph from the first marriage, before he married Maria. It turns out that, according to Orthodox views, Joseph was significantly older than Mary. Moreover, religious scientists agree with this. After all, from the texts of the Gospel, it can be seen that by the time Jesus began to preach, he had a family tragedy. Evangelicals mention brothers, sisters and mother, but do not mention the Father, which perhaps says that Joseph is already dead by then.

Lovely speaker

At the age of about thirty years, Jesus begins to read the sermons. And here the hottest skeptic will not be able to refute: he was a wonderful speaker, collecting up to five thousand people for sermons. At the time, it was like to collect "Olympic": taking into account that there were no sound strengthening means and a larger number of people would just heard anything. In addition, Jesus was also an outstanding healer.

The critical approach of scientists proceeds from the fact that all miracles should be explained or refuted. However, the explanation of some miracles is no less beautiful than wonders themselves. Example - When Jesus feeds a large crowd of those gathered five babes and two fish. Religices believe that the "miracle of human generosity" takes place: there was a long sermon, everyone was tired, and Jesus got his food and shared with people. At this point, the rest, touched by his act, remembered that they captured a picnic with them and also began to share. In approximately this key, a miracle and writer Varlam Shalamov interpreted.

How many students were at Jesus

When we talk about the disciples, we remember the 12 apostles, but in fact they were much more. The gospel mentions 70 apostles. The Apostle Paul writes that after the resurrection, Jesus came five hundreds of brothers, and the sermons listened to five thousand people at a time ...

"Lady Supper" (Muffle Leonardo da Vinci, Fragment).

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org.

Nevertheless, the most important were the twelve apostles. And here is interesting. When scientists compared the listings of the Apostles from the Gospel, they found that on the first, fifth and ninth place there are always the same people in the lists.

"This is not a mnemonic admission, and the fact is that the apostles shared into three groups - notes Konstantin Mikhailov. - Inside these groups, the names of the apostles coincide, but their order changes. Perhaps Jesus sends them to preach?

Based on this assumption, it turns out that the closest Jesus apostles are Simon Peter and the Jacob Brothers and John Zepleneev, whom he takes to sermons.

On the role of women

It's not a secret, then Judaism was a somewhat misovine religion, women remained the characters of the second grade. However, in the Jesus community we see the opposite. The apostles were married, but in addition, in the community there were independent women, Jesus's student. It is widely known about Maria and Martar, but there were others. So, for example, an important person was John Huza's wife, the King Householder Tsar Herod Antipa.

- It should be understood that Huz, this is not a housekeeper, and the Minister of State Protection, a major official at the courtyard of antips and the fact that his wife is connected with the Jesus community - even strange, - emphasizes Mikhailov. - Perhaps this can be explained, where the community has money. After all, someone from wealthy women could speak and sponsor. The community has lived modestly and the fact that for the Huza's wife was a penny "on the pins", for the community constituted the subsistence amount.

What Jesus says to the disciples?

Historians converge that Jesus requires the same as written in the commandments of Moses, but only much tougher. If Moses marks: "Do not commit adultery," then Jesus condemns even the divorce to which the Jews treated normally. If Moses prohibits perjury, then Jesus says: do not swear.

"He calls for superradical morality," Konstantin Mikhailov said. - Speakers extremely strictly and rigidly. On the one hand, scaring the rigor, but, on the other hand, attracting.

Scientists make an interesting assumption. And what if extraordinary severity was explained by the composition of the community? It had many such people who would not let the threshold at the decent house: Mytari, the harlons, robbers, tax collectors. In the Gospel of Mark, it was written that the Pharisees were surprised that Christ eats with sooters, harlots and sinners. What Jesus answered them: "Not healthy have a need for a doctor, but patients. I came to call the righteous for repentance. "

Perhaps the superradical severity of Jesus is related to the fact that it works with a very complex social group. It requires from his wards ten times more than any other, in the hope that his flock will fulfill at least one tenth.

Because of what Jesus died

In order to understand this, you need to figure out the confused world of political relations in Judea.

Jesus was born under the Great Hode. Herod, definitely, was a cruel ruler, but with it, Judea was an independent country. After the death of Herod came the Romans and divided the Jew as part. The largest part, including Jerusalem and Bethlehem, fell under direct control of Roman officials, that is, procurators, which was the famous Pontius Pilate. The overwhelming majority of Jews did not transfer the Romans on the Spirit, perceiving as invaders. Jesus in this sense is knocked out of the general range, he did not experience much hostility to the Romans. But whom he clearly disliked - it is Saddukeev, that is, the temple priesthood, which was sitting in the Jerusalem temple and collaborated with the Romans. Relations with Saddukes in Jesus were very bad. He constantly criticizes them and calls them the most powerful expression of that time: "Evidence of Echidnino."

It is clear that for Saddukeev, Christ was as well as, but the last straw, which was overwhelmed by the cup of patience, was the famous overclocking of merchants in the temple. Sadducei felt that it was necessary to get rid of him and did everything to happen what happened.

Although, the historians confidently conclude, the accusations made by Jesus were fabricated and had a reason for no more reason than the thirty-seventh year, when innocent citizens were accused of espionage in favor of Japan or Argentina.

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