Fans Papotaries often give preference to farmers tobacco - it is much more pleasant and fragrant of cigarettes or purchased raw materials. Connoisseurs are even planted small plantations at home. Immediately arises a number of questions: is it possible to put a tobacco in the country, how to plant a plant when it is planted, how to raise and how to care for him, how to collect leaves and seeds and is difficult to do it yourself. Growing tobacco bushes is really different from the dilution of other garden plants. Farmer must definitely figure out how to put and how to grow bushes. Motherland Plants - North and South America. In Europe, Tobacco is a French traveler Andre Teve in 1556. The plant called Nicotiana in honor of the Frenchman Jean Niko, who brought a snuff tobacco to France. This name is still in the botanical classification, hence the name of nicotine. Initially, Europeans grown it as a decorative bush, but from 1565 the leaves tried to smoke. Such an application of plants liked people. From the beginning of the XVII century, a fashion for tobacco plantations spread. In the XVIII century Tobacco already knew in Europe, Asia and Africa. The plant looks like a medium-sized bush. Stem has a fat and durable tobacco. Large leaves are attached to the trunk, slightly pointed at the ends. The root system reaches 2 m. During flowering, blurred inflorescence. The fruit of a tobacco bush is a seed box that is cracking during ripening. Tobacco Common grows mainly for smoking. In an industrial scale, cigarettes, cigars and cigarets are made of it. In addition to smoking, there are more 3 types: a snuff, chewing and heat. The use of each of them leads to dependence. The reason for this is nicotine, which in a dry sheet contains up to 5% of the total mass. Leaves are the main value and harvest of tobacco plantations. The yield of culture is high - with 1 hectare of plantations are removed 2-3 tons. Did you know? Tobacocking is the most common view of smoking. According to WHO, every third adult man in the world smokes tobacco. People smoke only 2 types of tobacco from 75: ordinary and Machork. The demand for smoking products is very high, so scientists are constantly studying and improving the raw materials. In Russia, the Research Institute of Tobacco, Machorkas and tobacco Products is engaged in this issue. By deciding what kind of grade to grow, farmers pay attention to the zoned varieties. This means that domestic scientists checked them for compliance with climatic standards or acclimatized. In the middle lane of the CIS countries, it is better to grow the following varieties: Seeds are sown in containers at the end of winter or early spring. For 2 months, the seedlings grows at home. Bushes are ready for landing in open ground at the turn of April and May. By this time they fix and have the following parameters: Did you know? At the beginning of the 20th century, American obstetricians advised pregnant to smoke tobacco for normal well-being. The growth of the plant largely depends on the technology of cultivation. Tobacco landing takes place in 4 main stages: preparation of seeds, their sowing, soil preparation for seedlings and seedling seedlings in the open area. The plant can be grown by a seaside and reckless way. The second for the middle band is not suitable due to landing time. At the beginning of the spring is too cold, the seeds die in the grinding ground. This method is preferable for a more unpretentious marsh. Tobacco seeds are first seeded at seedlings, and then transplanted into open ground. The plant is suitable for summer residents: seeds can be sowed in the apartment from the end of winter, and the seedlings are planted at the cottage or in the village. Experienced farmers collect seeds from the fruit boxes of past yields. Beginner tobacco bought material in stores. The main criterion of seeds - compliance with the selected variety. Sowing material is prepared as follows. For planting germinated seeds, you must select a container. The plant does not tolerate the pickup, so it is better to choose separate containers. Tobacco seedlings are conveniently grown in pots, glasses or cassettes. Optimal soil for seedlings - a mixture of sand and humus in a 1: 3 ratio. Landing occurs as follows: Now they need: Tobacco grows well on lungs and loose soils. The pebble and crusched structure will serve as a plant drainage. The soil acidity is optimal - pH 5.8. Well, if in the country area is a podzolic, serous or gray apodoline earth with a low content of humus. Farmers with gardens in Chernozem, invariably faced difficulties. Important and crop rotation. Tobacco grows well after: Important! By the time you need to plant a tobacco bushes, the soil must warm up to + 10 ° C. For the proper seeds landing, follow these steps: Before growing tobacco, the gardener should be familiar with the peculiarities of the care of this culture. Watering has three conditions: water temperature, humidification time and frequency. Tobacco bushes are well perceived warm water. Cold water from the hose only harms a plant. Irrigation is carried out in the morning or in the evening. If you moisturize the plant in the afternoon, water drops remain on the foliage, which creates the effect of the lens: the sun's rays pass through the drops and can burn the leaves. For this reason, watering during the active Sun is unacceptable. The frequency of watering depends on the age of the bush: 2 types of funds are used as feeding: Swimming makes the soil breathable, which positively affects the growth of rhizomes. Soil loose as needed. Along with this, weeds are removed. The soil is also picked up to the base of the trunk, dipping bushes. In the first month, loosening is required. After the fourth week of growing exposure to bushes limit. Weeds are still removed from the soil as they appear, but manually. Diseases of tobacco plantings can be warned by adhering to the rules of growing and care of the bushes. An important role in prevention plays disinfection of seeds and substrate to landing. Many tobaccoes for these purposes use formalin solution. Among the fungal diseases, tobacco can be noted as follows: Viral diseases carry a greater danger than fungal. Plant can hit: When the virus is detected, the diseased bushes should be removed and burned. Pests also destroy plantings. Of these, on tobacco bushes, the following are most often found: Important! All drugs need to be breeding strictly according to the instructions. Using them, use protection for hands in the form of gloves. While the tobacco blooms, it is necessary to prepare for the collection of seeds. This is important for further cultural breeding. Seeds are in a fruit box. After the box matures, it is cut and leave to dry for 2 weeks. After that, you can get seeds from it. The leaves can be removed when they are wishes. They begin collecting from the lower rows, but continue as the upper tiers are ripening. Remove as much as you can collect. The main thing is that each sheet is entire. After disembarking in the open soil, the bushes ripen 1.5 months. This means that the first leaves are collected from mid-June. After collecting the leaves, dried and fermented. Tobacco leaves after assembly dried. Carry drying in this way: It is necessary to conduct it according to the following instructions: The main thing in the cultivation of tobacco is to follow the planting technology and competent care. The farmer who studied all the subtleties will receive a fragrant quality harvest.
General Information on Plant Tobacco
Selection of the best Tobacco variety
Optimal terms of cultivation
The prerequisite when it comes to plant seedlings is the lack of threat of night frosts.
Basic rules of cultivation
Selection and preparation of seeds
Growing and care for seedlings
Before the appearance of 2-3 sheets, seedlings contain in such conditions:
Saplings with foliage conditions change a little.
Fertilize tobacco to two types of funds:
A week before moving seedlings to the soil, care is adjusted again. Watering is reduced and completely limited in three days before disembarking.
Preparation of soil landing
It should be avoided:
The seedlings grown in the apartment can be grown by one of two ways: in the garden in open conditions or in a greenhouse. Choosing a way, pay attention to the climate. In the southern regions, the plant grows well in open soil. In a more northern climate, it is better to take care of the greenhouse.
Platology care features
Tabachnikov offer such a diagram of feeding:
Loosening and weeping
Fighting pests and diseases
For the treatment of fungus, polycarbacin or "zineba" preparations are used.
Rules for collecting and storage
An important measure in the preparation of tobacco to smoking is fermentation.
In the process of fermentation, the taste and aroma of raw materials are improved. Tobacco becomes less strong, the percentage of nicotine is reduced.
Video: Tobacco fermentation
Fans Papotaries often give preference to farmers tobacco - it is much more pleasant and fragrant of cigarettes or purchased raw materials. Connoisseurs are even planted small plantations at home. Immediately arises a number of questions: is it possible to put a tobacco in the country, how to plant a plant when it is planted, how to raise and how to care for him, how to collect leaves and seeds and is difficult to do it yourself. Growing tobacco bushes is really different from the dilution of other garden plants. Farmer must definitely figure out how to put and how to grow bushes.
Motherland Plants - North and South America. In Europe, Tobacco is a French traveler Andre Teve in 1556. The plant called Nicotiana in honor of the Frenchman Jean Niko, who brought a snuff tobacco to France. This name is still in the botanical classification, hence the name of nicotine. Initially, Europeans grown it as a decorative bush, but from 1565 the leaves tried to smoke. Such an application of plants liked people. From the beginning of the XVII century, a fashion for tobacco plantations spread. In the XVIII century Tobacco already knew in Europe, Asia and Africa. The plant looks like a medium-sized bush. Stem has a fat and durable tobacco. Large leaves are attached to the trunk, slightly pointed at the ends. The root system reaches 2 m. During flowering, blurred inflorescence. The fruit of a tobacco bush is a seed box that is cracking during ripening.
Tobacco Common grows mainly for smoking. In an industrial scale, cigarettes, cigars and cigarets are made of it. In addition to smoking, there are more 3 types: a snuff, chewing and heat. The use of each of them leads to dependence. The reason for this is nicotine, which in a dry sheet contains up to 5% of the total mass.
Leaves are the main value and harvest of tobacco plantations. The yield of culture is high - with 1 hectare of plantations are removed 2-3 tons.
Did you know? Tobacocking is the most common view of smoking. According to WHO, every third adult man in the world smokes tobacco.
People smoke only 2 types of tobacco from 75: ordinary and Machork.
The demand for smoking products is very high, so scientists are constantly studying and improving the raw materials. In Russia, the Research Institute of Tobacco, Machorkas and tobacco Products is engaged in this issue.
By deciding what kind of grade to grow, farmers pay attention to the zoned varieties. This means that domestic scientists checked them for compliance with climatic standards or acclimatized.
In the middle lane of the CIS countries, it is better to grow the following varieties:
Seeds are sown in containers at the end of winter or early spring. For 2 months, the seedlings grows at home. Bushes are ready for landing in open ground at the turn of April and May.
By this time they fix and have the following parameters:
Did you know? At the beginning of the 20th century, American obstetricians advised pregnant to smoke tobacco for normal well-being.
The growth of the plant largely depends on the technology of cultivation. Tobacco landing takes place in 4 main stages: preparation of seeds, their sowing, soil preparation for seedlings and seedling seedlings in the open area.
The plant can be grown by a seaside and reckless way. The second for the middle band is not suitable due to landing time. At the beginning of the spring is too cold, the seeds die in the grinding ground. This method is preferable for a more unpretentious marsh. Tobacco seeds are first seeded at seedlings, and then transplanted into open ground. The plant is suitable for summer residents: seeds can be sowed in the apartment from the end of winter, and the seedlings are planted at the cottage or in the village.
Experienced farmers collect seeds from the fruit boxes of past yields. Beginner tobacco bought material in stores. The main criterion of seeds - compliance with the selected variety.
Sowing material is prepared as follows.
For planting germinated seeds, you must select a container. The plant does not tolerate the pickup, so it is better to choose separate containers. Tobacco seedlings are conveniently grown in pots, glasses or cassettes.
Optimal soil for seedlings - a mixture of sand and humus in a 1: 3 ratio.
Landing occurs as follows:
Now they need:
Tobacco grows well on lungs and loose soils. The pebble and crusched structure will serve as a plant drainage. The soil acidity is optimal - pH 5.8. Well, if in the country area is a podzolic, serous or gray apodoline earth with a low content of humus. Farmers with gardens in Chernozem, invariably faced difficulties.
Important and crop rotation.
Tobacco grows well after:
Important! By the time you need to plant a tobacco bushes, the soil must warm up to + 10 ° C.Before planting seedlings you need to cook soil. How to do this, depends on the process of cultivation. The greenhouse substrate fertilize the mixture of 4 parts of the sand and 3 parts by humus. The nutrient layer makes a thickness of at least 10 cm. Open soil is better fit up with fresh manure, coward or ash.
For the proper seeds landing, follow these steps:
Before growing tobacco, the gardener should be familiar with the peculiarities of the care of this culture.
Watering has three conditions: water temperature, humidification time and frequency.
Tobacco bushes are well perceived warm water. Cold water from the hose only harms a plant.
Irrigation is carried out in the morning or in the evening. If you moisturize the plant in the afternoon, water drops remain on the foliage, which creates the effect of the lens: the sun's rays pass through the drops and can burn the leaves. For this reason, watering during the active Sun is unacceptable.
The frequency of watering depends on the age of the bush:
2 types of funds are used as feeding:
Swimming makes the soil breathable, which positively affects the growth of rhizomes. Soil loose as needed. Along with this, weeds are removed. The soil is also picked up to the base of the trunk, dipping bushes. In the first month, loosening is required.
After the fourth week of growing exposure to bushes limit. Weeds are still removed from the soil as they appear, but manually.
Diseases of tobacco plantings can be warned by adhering to the rules of growing and care of the bushes. An important role in prevention plays disinfection of seeds and substrate to landing. Many tobaccoes for these purposes use formalin solution.
Among the fungal diseases, tobacco can be noted as follows:
Viral diseases carry a greater danger than fungal.
Plant can hit:
When the virus is detected, the diseased bushes should be removed and burned.
Pests also destroy plantings.
Of these, on tobacco bushes, the following are most often found:
Important! All drugs need to be breeding strictly according to the instructions. Using them, use protection for hands in the form of gloves.
While the tobacco blooms, it is necessary to prepare for the collection of seeds. This is important for further cultural breeding. Seeds are in a fruit box. After the box matures, it is cut and leave to dry for 2 weeks. After that, you can get seeds from it.
The leaves can be removed when they are wishes. They begin collecting from the lower rows, but continue as the upper tiers are ripening. Remove as much as you can collect. The main thing is that each sheet is entire. After disembarking in the open soil, the bushes ripen 1.5 months. This means that the first leaves are collected from mid-June.
After collecting the leaves, dried and fermented.
Tobacco leaves after assembly dried.
Carry drying in this way:
It is necessary to conduct it according to the following instructions:
The main thing in the cultivation of tobacco is to follow the planting technology and competent care. The farmer who studied all the subtleties will receive a fragrant quality harvest.
The constant rise in prices for cigarettes stimulates the interest of many smokers to the cultivation of tobacco on their land. In pre-revolutionary years, and especially during the revolutionary destroyed in Russia, one of the most unpretentious types of tobacco was grown everywhere.
Currently, you can buy seeds of the most exquisite varieties. Knowledge of how to grow a tobacco smoking on a garden may inspire many lovers of high-quality cigarettes.
The cultivation of smoking tobacco for a fan of cigarettes is an exciting occupation. It is impossible to compare the taste of fresh fried fish with canned fish, or the taste of a zucchini game with a stew from fresh vegetable. So, the taste and aroma of this tobacco cannot be compared with what is included in the cigarette.
Tobacco is a plant from the family of Parenic, one-year, tall, with large housing leaves, a rod root.
The plant is an industrial cultural type of hybrid origin. Dicking this kind was not found anywhere.
A plant that belongs to another look is familiar in our country, this is Machorka or Samad. They relate to alkaloid plants containing nicotine, nicotein, Nicotoin, Nicotellin, Cornicotin.
There are over 70 types of tobacco, which grow in moderate and southern regions of America, Australia, China, India, Turkey, Polynesia. For raw materials in the tobacco industry, a smoking tobacco is used.
Grow tobacco in Russia in large volumes of steel during revolutionary events, when its deliveries from other countries were discontinued. Rustic tobacco, that is, Machork, grew perfectly not only in southern areas, but even in the area of the Urals.
In Soviet times, many varieties of tobacco were derived for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory and in the Black Sea coast. After all, this plant is very thermalidious, and, in addition, all the varieties are distinguished by a long vegetation period, more than 100 days.
Currently, in the state market of plants of the Russian Federation, 17 Tobacco varieties are listed, including domestic selection:
Foreign varieties can be purchased in online stores:
- Kentucky Barley;
- Herzegovina Flor;
Important! Each variety has its own unique aroma and taste, the percentage of nicotine content, absorbing qualities.
Even Machork has numerous varieties:
- Mopago (Peruvian);
This type of tobacco, which was called a village tobacco, although I am inferior to the taste of American varieties, but is the most unpretentious and frost-resistant.
Machorka tastes the other, it is an aromatic real tobacco and much stronger. The factors are collecting beautiful collections of 70 varieties and offer seeds that can be grown on their own seed.
There are no industrial plantations for this plant today in Russia. Agrotechnology has once cultured varieties forgotten. Tobacco breeding are engaged in sections. Growing and care is not particularly different from the cultivation of other Parenic.
From grown independently, tobacco is easy to make cigarettes using a typewriter for cutting dried leaves and twisting cigarettes. These adaptations are inexpensive - 500 rubles per each. If you consider the cost of a pack of cigarettes, then with your own raw material you can significantly save your budget.
Culture requires high time and labor. Tobalance tobacco use seeds. They are very small, and the shelf life reaches 15 years, like a tomato.
Tobacco landing begins with the cultivation of seedlings. Dates of sowing depend on the region, for the middle strip it is mid-April.
Important! The cultivation duration of seedlings is 45-50 days, from transplanting to the ground before the bootonization takes 40-60 days, until the leaves are cleaning - 90-120 days.
The question is how to plant tobacco and how to grow in everyone who did not come across this plant. The technology of preparing seedlings includes several standard items:
- landing at a certain temperature;
- watering and feeding;
- protection of crops;
Cultivation of seeds begins with landing on seedlings. Seeds fold superficially into a small container with a soil, not falling asleep ground.
What kind of soil preferred? It is better to choose a universal soil for vegetables without an excess fertilizer. After sowing, the container is covered with polyethylene or lid.
How to care for sowing to shoot
The container must be in a warm medium at + 26-30 ° C, a lid over sediment for air circulation can be slightly converted twice a day a half minutes. For 3 days, the cover above the crops is left a rinse with 0.5 cm, for 7 days - we remove at all. Tender seedlings will get used to dry air and will not die. At this time, the seedlings do not water, the earth and so wet.
For 7-10 days we begin watering through the pallet. After 2 weeks we combine irrigating with a fading in a weak infusion of the onion husk. When the mold appears on the ground, it should be filled with a match and in water for watering it is worth adding a little manganese.
If plants are a bit, you can sip them and send them to individual cups. The picking is carried out at the time of the rustling of two real leaves, after 3 weeks since landing.
Before disembarking, seedlings are hardened. That is, it should be accustomed to finding the sun. 1.5 weeks before the transplant start to exhibit a container with seedlings in the sun. On the first day - for 20-30 minutes, on the second - for 40-60 minutes and so on.
At the end, the seedlings should stand all day on the street, without experiencing stress. At the same time it is necessary to follow the humidity of the soil.
Planting Tobacco seedlings to open soil begins with the time the plant will release 4-5 real leaves and reaches 10-15 cm growth.
When to plant seedlings in a garden? Like all the elephant - after establishing positive temperatures above + 14 ° C in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. At air temperature +4 ° C, tobacco dies. Therefore, it is important that after the landing there was no return freezers.
For the cultivation of tobacco in the open soil primarily requires a suitable temperature for the plant. Tobacco is better to plant on an outdoor, sunny, protected from the wind place. This culture is demanding that the soil fertility, but for the tobacco plantation it is better to choose poor land.
Important! The poorest the earth, the better taste of tobacco.
Tobacco care is to carry out the following works:
- weeding and loosening;
- Watering and feeding (usually no more than 2 times per season);
- protection of plantation;
- removal of steps
Tobacco landing diagram at the cottage - between plants 50 cm, between rows 80 cm. For growing up tobacco varieties it is worth installing plates with the name of each grade.
Agrotechnology is similar to the agrotechnical of tomatoes. In the open soil, the first few days of tobacco watered daily. After the plant arrives, it does not need it in watering.
If drought is behind and the leaves of the grown tobacco in the morning and in the evening they become confused, then the plantation is to pour. Founding leaves in daytime fears do not cause.
Important! The more moisture, the weaker the tobacco is obtained.
Smoking tobacco is amazed by some infections and the most common - tobacco mosaic. Infection occurs through sucking insects. Therefore, immediately when planting seedlings, you can shed every well to the prestige.
15 ml is diluted in 10 liters of water and poured 200 ml under the plant. That is, the planted plant is watered 1 liters of water, then 200 ml of the solution of the drug, and then 0.5 liters of water. In case of tobacco diseases, it is also found:
Diseases are mainly transmitted through insects, therefore it costs several times to treat plantation insecticide. The diseases themselves are not treated, at the first manifestations it is necessary to remove the sick bushes along with the root.
If the area was respected by crop rotation and tobacco grew where there were no passage cultures before, the risk of infection with infection is minimal. After 3-4 weeks, it is recommended to cut 2-3 lower leaves. This allows you to better air the plant and to protect against disease and mold.
At the end of 2 weeks of growth, the first and only feeding of the drug Ferty or Kemira Suite is carried out. It is enough to dissolve 1 match box of fertilizer on a bucket of water.
Water to each plant 1 l water, then 1 l feeding and again 1 liters of water.
It is not necessary to feed more, especially nitrogen fertilizers. From them the taste of tobacco becomes unpleasant, tread and burns the throat. Phosphoric fertilizers are entered under the autumn people. Potash fertilizers are scattered under the spring soil resistance.
At the end of the second week, the plantation begins to overcome weeds. They should be strained and undermine the earth. Weeding can be made a couple of times when tobacco grows up to 50 cm, his huge leaves will muffle all weeds.
In adult plants, conduct a procedure for removing steps that grew up to 3-4 cm. It must be done periodically, as new stepsings are growing.
When blooming about 40% of colors, carry out the procedure of the typewrition - tear flowers with upper leaves. This procedure leads to acceleration of ripening, for the aging of seeds, the plant spends a lot of strength and nutrition. After all, the tobacco grows for a long time and does not always have time to grow. The same procedure for shortening the stem is characteristic of many pumpkins so that its fruits manage to grow.
Collection of seeds
To stock our own good seeds, you need to try. For collecting smoking tobacco seeds, there are 1-3 plants with central bluers, side inflorescences are cut. To preserve the purity of the variety, you can wear a bag of agrospan before the start of flowering.
It is also necessary to adjust the number of seed boxes on the bush. Leave no more than ten major boxes. On the seed bush, leave the leaves only 2-3 times.
Seed boxes ripen gradually. Each is broken at full ripening. Boxes lay out in a sunny place on a sheet of paper for 2 weeks. Then choose seeds from them, sow from garbage through a sieve and lay out into small polyethylene bags, signing the name of the variety and year of cleaning.
Preparation of raw materials and fermentation
If you care for tobacco plantation is completely simple, it is not easy to prepare high-quality raw materials for making cigarettes. Even in the country areas, where you can grow a very small number of large plants, for drying the leaves you need to equip a special place - the dryer.
The manufacture of smoking tobacco from raw raw materials goes to several stages:
- collecting (breaking);
Important! The sheet matures gradually along the stem, on tiers. From one plant, the leaves are removed for 4-8 approaches.
40-45 days after planning, leaf breaks in the lower tier. This happens at about the same time with the advent of floral kidney. After 40-45 days from the beginning of the cleaning of the lower tier, the leaf breaks on the top tier.
The ripe sheet is very dense, hood and sticky, turns down, and the color changes on a pale green with yellowness. Riddled sheets when assembling click.
Drying is one of the main operations to obtain real raw materials from the leaves. The leaves are broken by hand during yellowing by 90%, rushes on the ropes with stacks and are moved to the width of the finger. After that, they are suspended for several days in wooden sheds or attacks for tomny. They weigh in the dark, without sunlight, at a temperature of + 25-35 ° C and a humidity of 80-90%.
Important! The leaves change the color, becoming yellow or red-brown, but finally do not dry out. And they also acquire a specific smell.
Drying usually continues for 3-4 days for light leaves and a week for tobacco with dark-green leaves. Love ligaments of leaves at a height of about a meter.
The second necessary operation of the preparation of raw materials is drying. Bundles with leaves for drying can be reeling higher to make room for taking the next batch. You need to dry at least a month. A well-dried leaf is a central vein with a crunch breaks, but will not be twisted when folding.
Any tobacco after passing the full manufacturing process need rest - detention. Dry leaves are stacked in the box where they lie 3-4 months.
Important! The taste and aroma during the collected and properly prepared tobacco after deserting becomes sophisticated and noble.
The fourth operation is fermentation. Fermentation technology at home is different. It is being developed by the gardener itself, which should arrange a taste of tobacco, resulting from this process.
To launch the fermentation process, a heat source is needed: oven, oven, heating battery, microwave, special cabinet, solar heat. The easiest way to fermentation occurs with the help of an electric oven:
- Fully dry and yellow leaves are slightly moistened from the sprayer from two sides and fold into the stack for a day, covering them with polyethylene;
- disassemble the leaves and remove the central veil;
- With the help of napshires, the leaves cut on a strip of 1-2 mm thick;
- put the cutting into glass jars, filling 2/3 of volume, and closed with a hermetic lid;
- Banks put in the closet and include it at a temperature of +50 ° C, leaving them there for 5-7 days.
Important! In the process of fermentation on glasses, condensate should not be formed.
As a result, the sheet acquires the familiar dark brown color, herbal smell is inferior to a specific tobacco aroma, bitterness is lost, grieving flammability.
It is worth saying that some types of tobacco are not subjected to fermentation: the anniversary new 142 and Kentucky Barley.
When growing tobacco growing, still it is worth remembering the folk wisdom: "smoke - to harm health." But everyone is free to choose himself than to do it.
However, tobacco leaves can be used not only for smoking. This is a very valuable means to protect against pests of many agricultural curtulines. And also use tobacco and drugs, in treating:
- as anthelnogon;
- in diseases of the feet.
The cultivation of tobacco plants on the garden for smoking is an exciting occupation. In the state market of plants of the Russian Federation, 17 zoned varieties of Soviet selection were registered, several dozen foreign varieties can be purchased in online stores. And each - with its unique taste and aroma.
Tobacco cultivation in the garden can become an interesting hobby, no worse than winemaking or growing exotic and rare plants.
Since I myself am an avid smokers, I was very interested in the topic of home tobacco production. In the future I will publish articles dedicated to this topic, I will immediately make a reservation, I am not the author of the articles, so I will give references to the original sources. Taken with the propertabacco.ru.
Tobacco cultivation at home.
Cultivation of tobacco at home, the case is quite simple, as you may seem at first glance. The main thing is the desire to work and have 1.5-2 weaves in stock. This area is enough to ensure yourself tobacco for a year. But over time, your appetites can grow and then you will look in your capabilities. I began to grow tobacco spontaneously. A friend asked to order him on the Internet tobacco seeds, as he was on "you" with the Internet. I thought and decided to order myself on a sample too. And now I went to the sixth year, how I would grow tobacco on the garden for smoking and believe me, I never regretted it. Smoking your tobacco is much more pleasant than these store sticks with incomprehensible filler. Plus, you get an extensive field for experiments from various tobacco varieties, a variety of mixtures of tobacco varieties, various sauces with which can be fermented by tobacco i.e. Here, your fantasies are not limited.
And now I am angry with your tobacco and making a sip of your home wine, feel bliss and sense of satisfaction. I hope you convinced you to do this noble thing. You yourself will not regret. Also, you will receive savings of your budget, in today's prices for cigarettes, it will be significant. If you threatened to grow your tobacco, I offer you on the pages of this site to get acquainted with the description of my experience, and we start sowing seeds.
Tobacco cultivation in the apartment: maybe or not? People ask the question. To be honest, nothing good with this idea is not to get, except for initial experience. No smoking qualities, but the bush himself, it looks cool in a pot and perfectly complements the interior.
How to grow tobacco at home? Yes, very simple, read articles and most questions you will disappear. Here the main thing is not to repeat other people's mistakes, although after reading these articles, the errors will still be, but not so global.
How to make sowing tobacco seeds
Before starting sowing tobacco seeds to seedlings, you need to purchase soil and container. As a container, I use food containers, and soil buying. In containers do not forget to make holes in the day. There is another not an unlucky moment, the purchase of the soil can throw out a not pleasant surprise in the form of mold or oversupply of mineral fertilizers, and the mold at the initial stage is destructive for seedlings of tobacco, since his seeds are very small. From an excess fertilizer, seeds will go, but will stop in growth. Therefore, that this does not happen, I recommend making a trial sowing for a month and a half to the main one. At the same time, you will acquire the first experience in germination and teaching seedlings to the open air.
We fall asleep the earth in the container gradually proud, to the edge we should remain a little less centimeter of free space. Pour out the steamed water so that it leaked until the middle. I shed not just with water, but in thenast of the onion husk. The handful of husks fall asleep into a liter jar and pour boiling water, then in the microwave for a couple of minutes. After I give cool to room temperature and use. Long husk contains a lot of macro and micro elements.
We start sowing.
Sowing tobacco seeds is better to produce so: first pinch the seed into a sheet of white paper, then pressing the finger with a pillow slightly on the seeds and those that stick to evenly shake along the surface of the soil. Attention to sprinkle seeds is not necessary, they must lie on the surface. Then cover the lid, we will have mini guy. Do not seit too many seeds on a small area. Do not forget to sign every variety if you have several of them.
Well, we sowed seeds. We remove the containers with seeds into the warm 26-30 degrees place. By the end of the second day, the seeds are gluable provided that the quality of these seeds is good. During these two days, we produce four ventilations for more than five minutes. On the third day we move the cover of our mini guinea for half a centimeter to circulate air and every day we increase this gap. On the seventh eighth day, the lid is removed completely. These manipulations are needed in order for our seedlings smoothly accustomed to the dry air indoors. If you open right away, on the third fourth day of seedlings can simply fall and dry (cases in the central heating apartments) as the air humidity in the heating season is very low.
The first 7-10 days after sowing, do not pour out, the earth and so will be wet. Next, we look at the state and produce watering through the pallet, i.e. In the bottom cover, in which the container is worth. Two weeks after sowing, we feed the seedlings with the influence of the onion husk, before that, I dilute it in half the water.
Container for seedlings
passed week after sowing
2 weeks from sowing
Turning time tobacco seeds.
And most importantly, this timing of seed tobacco seeds. Each region, they are different, therefore, it is necessary to focus on the age of seedlings, it should be 45-50 days from sowing before landing in the ground. From this period, take into account sowing time. Do not hurry with sowing. As practice shows, seeds that are sown in time in favorable conditions (longer than the light day, more than the sun) catch up and distinguish early sowing. After seeds, we produced, in the next article we will talk about the backlight for our tobacco seedlings.
Important, mold at Tobacco seedlings! If you still have a mold at the seedlings, or rather on the surface of the soil, you need to immediately break it with a match or toothpick and treat the otmangantamy sprouter. The color of manganese must be the colors of the welded boards. Stop watering to the top layer of the soil drop. One of the reasons for mold, it is a convergence and bad ventilation of your mini greenhouse in the first 5-12 days after seeding.
Mold can destroy up to 90% of your germs or even all your variety. So be careful and do not pour the seedlings, you often ventilate.
To be continued…
According to statistics, every seventh person on the planet is a tobacco smokers. And you knew that in most modern brands there are practically no tobacco cigarettes. An industrial cigarette is a wick from the tobacco industry waste, impregnated with artificial nicotine and glycerin.
In addition, prices for tobacco and cigarettes are steadily growing up every year, excise taxes increase. What to do in this situation avid lovers of tobacco smoke? It is best to try to throw this habit and cope with addiction. But for those who do not work, you can try to grow tobacco growing at home.
Tobacco cultivation on her garden is a very interesting occupation. There is a huge variety of varieties with different taste, aroma, fortress, etc. Everyone can choose their own list of favorite varieties and get the right taste.
But most importantly - you will use completely natural and environmentally friendly tobacco. You will receive top quality raw materials. The process of growing tobacco is quite time consuming and requires special knowledge. But acquiring this knowledge, you will get a profitable and very interesting skill. On this page we will tell you how to raise your tobacco in your site from a milk. From the moment of choosing a variety and sowing to seedlings before harvesting.
Benefits of tobacco growing in the garden
The harm of smoking for a person is indisputable. Getting used to tobacco developing very quickly. Tobacco leaves contain nicotine in its composition, and this is one of the strongest drugs. Undoubtedly, smoking is better to throw. In fact, this is not so difficult - the dependence is rather psychological than physical.
Let's not go much from the topic. If you are an avid smokers and regularly smoke a pack of cigarettes per day, then you will be very profitable to grow your tobacco on the plot.
First, you will receive natural tobacco raw materials of the highest quality. From this raw material it will be possible to make a tobacco for cigarettes, tubes, make cigar and even hookah tobacco with their own hands. You yourself will know what your product is made.
Secondly, if you smoke 1 pack of cigarettes per day, then spend about 100-200 rubles on it. So, per year on cigarettes is spent from 30 to 60 thousand rubles. This is a lot of money for the quality we get in industrial cigarettes. Growing your tobacco, you can get the raw material of the highest quality for the singer of penny. However, it will be necessary to make some efforts to care, process and study your tobacco business. To ensure itself tobacco for a whole year, it is necessary to plant 150-200 tobacco bushes of highly productive varieties.
Financial expenses for the cultivation of tobacco on the garden are minimal. It will be necessary to purchase seeds and high-quality soil for seedlings. You can meet 500-1000 rubles. Agree, the benefit is obvious.
Thirdly, tobacco processing products (central veins, tobacco dust) can not be disposed of, but use to combat pests in the garden. TLL, ants, the median is immediately dying after the treatment of plants with infusion of tobacco dust.
Tobacco cultivation is an interesting hobby that allows you to receive not only harmful habit, but also the opportunity to study the branch of the crop production.
Set of tobacco varieties for making cigarettes and self-trap
Decided to move from purchased cigarettes on your own tobacco? Based on data from varieties, you can cook various bags and pick up that taste that suits you. 10 Tobacco varieties for cigarettes and self-trafficking in just 350 rubles!
Brief information about tobacco and cultivation
- Sowing on seedlings: from mid-February to April
- Time for shoots: 5-15 days. Depends on the variety, the state of seeds and temperature medium
- Landing in the ground: from mid-May to late June
- Vintage: from July to October
Tobacco (Nicotiana) is a genus of perennial and annual plants of the family of Parenic. It is grown to obtain raw materials used in tobacco products. The most vivid representatives:
- Tobacco Common (Tobacco Virgin / Tobacco real / Nicotiana Tabacum). Plant with a height of up to 3 m with pink flowers, tubular wedge with sharp blades. Leaves oblong, sitting. The plant is thermalized. It grows in many countries of the world and has a huge variety of varieties.
- Ordinary Machorka (Tobacco Rustic / Nicotiana Rustica). Plant with a height of up to 1.2 m. Flowers of yellowish color, a whisk with a short tube and rounded blades. Egg-shaped leaves. Plants are more unpretentious than an ordinary tobacco.
Machorka on an industrial scale was grown in Russia since the XIX century (even in the Urals and in Siberia).
Motherland Tobacco is considered to be Bolivia and Peru. In Europe, this plant was delivered by the expedition of Christopher Columbus. To Tobacco to Russia, Peter I.
All parts of the plant contain nicotine. Nicotine leaves are most of all - 0.75-2.88%. Nicotine is a potent neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. When used, short-term euphoria arises. Tobacco use causes physical and psychological addiction.
What to choose varieties
The question of choosing a variety is acute for beginners. Experienced tobaccoers have long made a choice for themselves, and they plant those varieties that are more preferable for use in the current year.
Newcomers should pay attention to two things:
- Climatic conditions of your region
- Creation of grade to growing conditions. Newbies should choose unpretentious varieties. They will forgive mistakes that are inevitable.
Tobacco is a southern plant. However, many varieties appeared from the beginning of the XXVEK, which are adapted for cultivation in different climatic zones.
Selection of tobacco varieties is developed in all countries of the world. Including in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Domestic selection was aimed at enslaving the tobacco varieties to be adapted to colder climatic conditions, while not lost their properties of the original variety, and increased productivity.
Cuban, American, Turkish varieties of tobacco are also growing in the climate of Russia, but do not give the productivity that could be given in their homeland of their selection. And they are harder to grow.
Tobacco fermentation methods at home -Article
Therefore, for beginners in tobacco business, we recommend starting from varieties of domestic selection. Especially for those who live in the regions with a cold climate - in the middle lane of Russia, in Siberia, in the Urals, etc.
In the first year it is recommended to plant 3-5 different varieties. You will feel the difference and understand what the tobacco varieties may differ from each other. We list the varieties that have proven themselves in the climatic conditions of Russia and are suitable for beginners.
Virginia 202. . This is one of the best varieties for beginner tobacco wheels. Plant height from 1.5 to 2 meters. Raw materials have a pleasant fruit taste and aroma. Unpretentious in growing. Can be used in various cigarette and tubular bags.
Virginia Gold . Refers to Virginia's zotto. Very productive and unpretentious grade. Recommended for growing novice.
Burley Krasnodarsky . Good grade, acclimatized for growing in the middle lane of Russia. Unpretentious and productive.
Stuff . Good reliable variety. Gives a stable harvest.
Herzegovina Flor. . Favorite Tobacco Stalin variety. Very fragrant and tasty. After harvesting is not required fermentation.
Jubilee new 142. . Another good variety of domestic selection. Perfect for beginners.
Tobacco varieties There is a huge amount. To describe them all within this article there is no point.
Set of tobacco varieties that do not require fermentation
This set collects tobacco varieties that do not require additional fermentation. They can be used immediately after harvesting and drying. 10 varieties for just 320 rubles!
How to plant tobacco seedlings
Tobacco cultivation begins with sowing on seedlings. In the climatic conditions of our country, Tobacco does not have time to mature with the straight sowing of seeds into the ground. Therefore, from the end of February and until the end of March, the time of sowing of tobacco seeds in the seedlings begins.
The process of sowing tobacco seeds to seedlings has some features. The fact is that the tobacco seeds are very small and with them it is not very convenient to work.
Before sowing, it is necessary to prepare soil and containers in advance for seedlings. Let's talk about it.
Soil for seedlings
Tobacco seedlings are quite demanding to the soil. At the same time, the earth must be loose. Tobacco seeds are very small and difficult to germinate. Here you can go in two ways:
- Purchase ready-made soil in the store
- Make nutrient soil alone
The first option is the easiest. From personal experience, the usual universal soil for vegetable crops is perfect. The stores are made on the basis of peat and contain in its composition the entire necessary complex of nutrients.
You can also buy universal soil for floral crops. He will also suit.
Here the most important thing is not to stumble upon a fake. Buy only in large stores from the well-known manufacturer.
You can cook soil for tobacco seedlings yourself. To do this, mix the following ingredients:
- Fertile land from the garden - 1 part
- Humus (compost) - 1 part
- Sand (as a baking powder) - 0,5 part
Remember, the soil must get loose.
Soil for seedlings should be neutral or with low acidity.
Any soil always contains many harmful microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, etc. Therefore, 3-4 days before sowing work it is necessary to make disinfection. It is possible to disinfect the soil with a solution of mangartages or a special means (you can buy in the Phytosporin store).
Capacity for seedlings
As practice has shown, it is most convenient for Tobacco seedlings to use ordinary disposable cups. They are inexpensive and perfectly suitable for the growth of tobacco seedlings before picking.
But you can use any other containers. There are a very large selection today in stores. The depth of the container should be at least 6 cm. Each variety is better to plant a separate cup.
It should be traced that in each container a hole is done to remove extra moisture.
Preparation of seeds
Many tobacco plates do not conduct any pre-sowing seed processing. Soot them immediately.
We recommend the disinfection of the seeds with a solution of manganese, rinse and dry. This procedure is carried out in 2-3 days before planting.
Tubbacco set set
In this set, the tobacco varieties are collected, which have proven themselves perfectly for the tube. You can use various variations and pick up such a bag that will suit you to taste and aroma. 10 valuable tobacco varieties for just 350 rubles!
Agrotechnology Sowing seeds for seedlings
Agrotechnology Sowing tobacco seeds at seedlings is quite simple. The main complexity is the size of the sowing material. But this can be adapted.
- Fill the cups in advance prepared and disinfected soil. Moisten to warm water.
- Sprinkle seeds on top of the moistened soil. Landing is frequent. Not worth it to be afraid. In the future, the plants will need to be sked.
- Seeds Sprinkle the soil, but do not deepen much (maximum 1-1.5 mm). Even if some seeds are not sprinkled by soil - nothing terrible. They will all germinate.
- Write on each cup the name of the variety.
- Cover the cups with polyethylene and put in a dark warm place.
About a week later, you will have the first shoots. First of all, it is necessary to remove the film and put the containers with the seedle to the bright place - on the windowsill. Tobacco - a light-loving plant. In the first week of growth, it is recommended to provide seedlings with light within 12-14 hours every day. For this use phytolamba.
Then the duration of the daylight can be reduced to 8-10 hours. If seedling was planted in mid-March, then additional lighting can not be used. If earlier, then connect phytolamba.
In general, the care of the seedl of tobacco does not represent anything complicated. Not much different from the care of such a culture as tomatoes.
During the growth of seedlings, tobacco need to water, make several feeding and picking. Talk about it more.
Tobacco seedlings demanding to watering. But should not be watered overly. Watering cups with seedlings should be carried out as the upper bed of the soil is drying. Excessive moisture can lead to the development of infectious and fungal diseases.
The average irrigation rate is 1 time in 3-4 days. But it all depends on the temperature and humidity of the air in the room.
Water for watering should not be cold. It should have a room temperature. There are no special requirements for water quality. You can simply pour water from under the tap and put it up to stand for 1-2 days.
Tobacco seedlings need a dive. Due to the frequent planting of the plant at a certain stage of growth, cannot correctly grow and develop - there are not enough space and nutrients. Strong seedlings begin to catch weak.
Picking is a process of planting plants from a total capacity to separate cups.
Tobacco transplant to individual cups produced when 3-4 real leaves appear on the plants.
You can use disposable cups to dive. One cup can be planted to 3 plants.
Soil can use the same as when planting seeds to seedlings.
During the growth of Tobacco seedlings, two chemical elements are needed - nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is needed by plants for the formation of green mass (stems, leaves), phosphorus is needed to build the root system.
In a good balanced soil there will be the whole set of nutrient elements. In this case, the additional feeding of seedlings is not needed at all. Tobacco and so will grow perfectly and develop.
However, if you notice any deviations in the growth, then without feeding it is not necessary. The fertilizer is well suited:
If you notice that seedlings lagged behind or leaves the leaves, immediately make feeding.
Rechazzle seedlings in open ground
With the onset of stable warm weather, it's time to think about the village of Tobacco seedlings in open ground at a permanent place. By this time, plants will appear at 6-7 real leaves.
In the middle lane of Russia, stable warm weather is installed in the period from mid-May to early June. At this time and you need to have time to plant tobacco.
1-2 weeks before the disembarkation should prepare beds for tobacco. The location for the beds should be chosen on a small slope so that a lot of moisture does not accumulate on the plot. The plot must be protected from a strong wind.
The plot should be carefully accurate and swinging with robbles. During the rescue you can make some compost.
Any transplantation for plants is a big stress. Therefore, seedlings must be prepared - harden. Hardening allows tobacco to experience stress and accelerate the survival process.
The hardening procedure starts 1.5-2 weeks before disembarking in open ground. At first, you should simply open the window in the room where seedlings are 30-40 minutes. Then this time is increased. For 2-3 days of the tank with the seedle, you can endure outside.
On the day of the seedling landing, it is necessary to dig a small well on the prepared bed. The wells are digged according to the scheme - 70 × 30 cm.
Gently remove each plant from the cup and gently plant in the prepared wells. Then carefully pour. Nothing difficult.
Tobacco Care in Open Ground
The first week after disembarking the plants will be adapted to new conditions, for them it is a big stress. Tobacco will look sluggish, may even shook the leaves. Not worth it to be afraid. If there are no frosts, the plants will quickly adapt to the conditions of the open soil and are broken into growth.
At first, seedlings will be sensitive to direct sunlight. Therefore, it is desirable to shake a little tobacco landing.
Tobacco is a sufficiently drought plant. Many tobaccoers prefer not to water at all.
It is worth looking for weather conditions and state of plants. If you can see that the soil is very dry and the leaves in plants begin to wet, then watering is necessary. Water tobacco should be with warm water.
It is not recommended to get involved in watering. The tobacco roots are very massive and germinate deep into the ground. And high humidity can cause fungal and infectious diseases.
Does the artificial feeding of tobacco need? The question is ambiguous. Many tobacco plates with experience are completely refused by additional feeding.
The fact is that undercover tobacco, the size of the plant and yield will increase. At the same time, the taste will worsen a little. This is especially true of Turkish aromatic varieties.
Based on personal experience, we have come to this conclusion - you can feed skeletal varieties (Virginia, Burley, etc.), but it is worth abandoning fertilizers for orientals and other varieties that have a specific taste and aroma.
During the growth of tobacco, you can spend two feeding.
- First feeder spend two weeks after disembarking seedlings in the ground. The carbamide (urea) is suitable as a fertilizer. Add 1 tbsp. Fertilizers on 10 liters of water, stir and sprinkle plants.
- The second feeder can be spent 2-3 weeks after the first. The composition of the feeding remains the same.
Comprehensive mineral fertilizers for vegetable crops are suitable as feeding for tobacco.
Periodically, the beds with tobacco are recommended to loosen. This will improve the aeration of the roots and relieve weeds.
Follow the loop to produce every 2-4 weeks.
Each Ogorodnik knows what the tomatoes are stepsing and that their removal leads to an increase in the harvest. The same with tobacco.
Before flowering on plants, the appearance of small steppers can be seen between the leaves. They must be deleted.
It is recommended to wait until they grow up slightly, and then cropped with scissors, leaving "Penos" with a length of 0.5-1 cm. The new stepper will not grow in this place.
Tobacco's tops are the deletion of inflorescence. The fact is that inflorescences take a lot of energy that could go to the growth of leaves.
Tobacco's vertex is also a rather controversial question. After deleting the inflorescence, a very active growth of new stepsings will begin to be deleted. Therefore, to be thrink or not to thrust tobacco - to solve you.
From personal experience - the yield increases not much.
After passing all the stages from planting seeds to seedlings, you will finally reach the harvest stage.
Tobacco harvesting is carried out in several goals as leaves ripening. The first tier begins to sleep.
How to determine the ripeness of the sheet?
When ripened, the sheet becomes a bug, dense, sticky. The edges of the sheet wrap up the book. Gradually, he starts shroudedly from the edge. When rushing a mature leaf, a kind of cracking occurs. These are all very generalized characteristics. Each variety has the ripening sheet occurs differently. Some varieties leaf can pale.
After harvesting, the tobacco leaves are sent to tomorrow and drying.
Next, the harvest must be processed correctly - dry, ferment and send it to storage. We will talk about it in other articles.
The cultivation of tobacco in her garden is a very exciting and interesting occupation, along with winemaking or growing rare plant species. You can do this case with minimal investments by purchasing tobacco seeds.
Tobacco set for cigars
Want to twist cigars from your own tobacco? Then this set for you. In it we collected 10 varieties for the coating and binder leaves, for the filling and to give a unique fragrance. 10 varieties for only 350 rubles!
Every seventh person is a smokers and sponsor of tobacco companies. Do you know that there are practically no tobacco in modern cigarettes? A cheap cigarette is a kind of wick from tobacco production, impregnated with toxic chemical compounds.
If you can't quit smoking, try to grow a varietal tobacco yourself. Experienced tobaccoers create even small tobacco plantations in their own sections. However, this is a rather laborious process that requires special knowledge. The secrets of breeding tobacco and care is divided with us Dmitry Sergievsky having a vast experience of the successful cultivation of this culture in the Perm Territory.
Dmitry, what varieties of tobacco are you growing? Which of them are particularly popular?
There are 5 main groups for which all types of tobacco can be divided:
- Skeletal varieties (basics of all mixtures). For example, Berli. и Virginia .
- Skeletal-aromatic (used both separately and in mixtures).
- Oriental varieties. Different with a strong aroma.
- Cigar. Used for the manufacture of cigars. They have an enhanced fortress.
- A separate subspecies are grocery varieties, the so-called "Samad", although some of them have tobacco characteristics.
I grow 2-3 varieties from each group, except for Machorka. We list the main ones that enjoy the greatest popularity: Virginia Gold, Virginia Red, Brava-200, Spectrum, Dubek, Orenal, East, Havana, Silver River and Maryland ...
Tobacco, as far as I know, grown through seedlings. How to prepare the soil for this culture and which containers are better to sow?
As a soil for Tobacco seedlings, I use the purchased peat mixture with the addition of wood ash and sand (river preferred). Sowing tobacco in small plastic containers with covers. At the bottom I make holes and cover them with the agrospan, so as not to wake up the ground.
During the first weeks of developing seedlings, Tobacco often dies from the root rot and the black leg. In case of non-compliance with the conditions of growing losses can be up to 100%. Therefore, the soil before sowing tobacco I recommend pouring a phytosporin solution.
How to determine the optimal seeding time (for example, for the middle strip of Russia)?
Tobacco seed an average of 40-60 days before transplanting to the ground, and this period in each region is different. In the Urals, we can get a faster seedlings tobacco to the open ground of June 10-15. Therefore, I begin to sow tobacco from mid-April. In regions with a warmer climate, you can sow early in early March.
Tobacco seeds are sown dry? Do you need to disinfect them on the eve of sowing?
Tobacco seeds, I recommend to hold on a weak solution of manganese about 6 hours. Those who pop up should be thrown away, and the remaining - to sonar and add to the convenience of sowing.
Since the seeds are very small, spread them one on the surface of the soil is very difficult. I sowing the seeds simply with my fingers: I pick up a pinch and scatter as it is sulking a dish.
There is a wonderful way of sowing small seeds: a layer of snow is placed on the ground, it is sealing it, and seeds seed from above. So you can easily see how many seeds you pour. The snow is gradually melting, and the seeds fall on a well-moistened prepared soil.
Do I need to fall asleep the earth? What conditions need to be created for germination?
It is possible to fall asleep with a small layer of land, but not necessarily. I fall asleep with a layer of 5-7 mm, which increases the timing of germs for the week. At the same time, the seedlings develop the root system. And seeds, not covered with the earth, can "float" when watering at the stage of seedlings.
Since for sowing I use containers with a lid, before the appearance of germs I have the opportunity to make mini-guys. I put containers into a warm place where the temperature is not lower than 20-25 ° C. It is desirable to open for half an hour twice a day.
Dmitry, please tell me how to care for shoots? Does checkered? How to water?
Feeding seedlings are desired only in the stimulators of the root formation. With sufficient lighting, the growth occurs uniform. If there are not enough light, additional lighting with a full spectrum of light is used, it is best to phytolamba. Plants are preferably to relax at night from the light to get used to change the day of the night in the conditions of soil. The tobacco seedlings are watered only through the pallet.
After the appearance of tobacco sprouts, do you spend thinning, leaving the most strong plants?
I do not force the seedlings, although some tobacco products are practiced. In one tray of 20 × 20 cm in size, 200-250 plants are placed.
How do you make pickup seedlings?
Picking seedlings is the most interesting and time-consuming process. For one plant requires 100-150 ml of soil. In the cups we make holes, fill with the ground and moisturize. Piquetted plant dip in the water for the release of roots from the soil. Then landing the seeding into the container prepared in the container. At this stage, losses can be from 10 to 30%, it all depends on the experience of picking plants.
I advise you to dive stages, because Until that the tobacco "will move" to a greenhouse, plants need to harden and teach to the sun. For this, within 1-2 weeks, we take out seedlings to the street and exhibit in the sun, ranging from 15 minutes to 1.5 hours a day. The greenhouse does not heal. We use only thermal batteries in the form of metal barrels with water. During the day they heat up, and at night they are warm.
How to determine the optimal time to land seedlings in open ground? And at what distance from each other should be the bushes?
By the time of disembarking tobacco bushes, the soil should warm up to 10 ° C. Tobacco is a very thermal-loving plant, and with a sharp decrease in temperature, its growth and development slow down, and minor frosts can cause death. Therefore, the bushes are planted for a permanent place, waiting for sustainable heat.
I have a distance between the rows of 50-60 cm, between the plants - 30-40 cm. With the proper hardening, the tobacco does not need to be dialed. There are varieties requiring shading, but these are cigar luxury varieties. In Russia, so do not grow. It is possible to cover the planting spunbodic, like tomatoes, but with a large volume (and I have about 3,000 bushes) it is very uncomfortable.
Do you use any fertilizers for tobacco and how often do you water?
The most optimal fertilizer for tobacco is an organic. I use a permissive chicken litter: 500 g of solution on 10 liters of water. But if you are afraid to overdo it, enough glasses.
I water the plants only when disembarking. In the conditions of our climate, this is enough. And in arid areas, watering is needed, but not very often. Missed the edges of Tobacco leaves - this is his feature that does not speak of a lack of water. Now if the plant stands oppressed early in the morning - this is an indication that watering is necessary.
What are your tobacco disease and how to deal with them? Do you process anything landings for prevention?
Tobacco is very strongly susceptible to diseases. All the diseases of the Parenic group are also inherent. When the first signs of illness, it is necessary to immediately remove the affected leaves and even bushes. For prophylaxis I use phytospirin and other means, depending on the situation. To the area where tobacco is growing is better ventured, it needs to be fond all the time. This is one of the important moments of disease prevention.
Suppose tobacco grew up. What to do next with him? How to determine the degree of maturity of leaves?
The degree of tobacco maturity differs in varieties. If you take the most common varieties, the signs of the maturity of the leaves will be the following: the edges of the sheet are shown, the central vein becomes lighter, and when the leaf is closed, you will hear a characteristic cabbage crunch. Tobacco is collected in stages (tiers), starting from the lower leaves. Typically, the plant has 4 tiers, and each tier differs in the fortress and the resin content: the lower the tier, the resin content below.
And how to collect tobacco seeds? And do you need to leave inflorescence in all bushes?
When the plant produces information, to collect seeds it is necessary to bite it with a fabric bag or tied with agrosphan. This will help avoid crossing varieties. Tobacco - self-polling plant, and such assistants, like bees or bumblebees, he does not need. If you do not need seeds, we leave tobacco in this form.
But if you want to collect seeds, you need to leave only a central color sector with 10-12 central boxes on the bush, and the remaining must be removed. From this plant, it is advisable to make no more than 2-3 lies of the sheet.
To the increase in the fortress and fragrance, the tobacco is compounded by inflorescences. But geeks begin to grow, and they must be removed.
What needs to do with leaves after collecting?
After collecting leaves, the "charge" is carried out. Do it in the piles or on the rope at high humidity and temperature. Piles are stacks of tobacco sheets. Tobacco leaves are very large: they can be folded into the piles one to another, to make a stack of up to 40 cm high. They themselves are heated and unwitted, that is, rose. When using the instrument, the leaves need to be sorting out and removing yellowed as they appear. This is a very important process, on which the quality of tobacco depends. The yellowed leaves hang for drying.
Where in what conditions do you dry tobacco?
Drying tobacco depends on varieties. Some varieties require the shadow, others - solar drying, the third - fire ... The degree of drying of the sheet is determined by the dryness of the central vein.
Please describe the process of further work on tobacco leaves.
In the future, depending on the varieties, the leaves require travelers or fermentation. The deposit lasts from one and a half months to one and a half years, it is desirable to ferment at 50 ° С 14-20 days at a certain humidity. But this is a separate topic for those who have already grown tobacco. Some varieties do not require fermentation and departures, for example, Burley, spectrum and etc.
What form tobacco is particularly popular?
From tobacco make a mass of a secondary product for use. The most popular is, of course, smoking tobacco, then there is a pipe. There are also a lot of ways to manufacture and varieties, hereinafter - hooking smoking mixtures, then chewing and sniffing tobacco.
You can read more about it in more detail on this page: https://vk.com/im?sel=392452648.
They say on Cuba: "To do tobacco, you need to marry it." And all because the cultivation of tobacco takes very time and strength. In order to try, you can sow tobacco as a decorative plant that blooms very beautifully.
Many gardeners, supporters of organic farming, grow and use tobacco on their sites to scare insect pests. Tobacco dust is an effective natural insecticide. In addition, tobacco leaves contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Therefore, tobacco dust is also an excellent fertilizer for all types of garden plants and indoor flowers.
How to grow a smoking tobacco on the garden
This season I will tell and show How to grow tobacco smoking in the country area. You will also learn how to tomorrow and dry tobacco. The whole process of cultivation was in real time.
Today the start of the new season was given how to raise tobacco 2016. My following varieties were sown:
1 American 26.
2 American 3.
4 Trapzond 92.
Now in order:
In the containers was a row, not sleeping 1 cm. To the edge, and slightly tumped. I use the seventh year using the ground focus of the Father's company and have not yet seen problems, I hope this year will not be.
The next stage I shed the soil with the onion of the onion husk. Details How to make such an infusion, read in the seed seed article. Perhaps mold in the seedlings bypasses me precisely because of this infusion, plus it has a whole set of micro and macro elements.
Start sowing. Take a sheet of white paper and pour a few seeds.
The back side of the finger pad slightly push them on them and those seeds that stick to evenly shake on the surface. Do not seit too much on a small area. After sown, do not do anything else. Seeds must lie on the surface. Now we place them in a warm place with a temperature of 26-30 s *. In my case, it is a window sill with a balcony side. The thermometer shows + 32c.
Start of germination
Three days passed. Three varieties sprouted, and only two are shouted. From the bottom in the photo sprouted. White snacks, around sprouts, who are like a mold, let them not frighten you, these are small roots of our future Kury.
Check out seedlings.
Immediately make a reservation, the fourth number launched the shower, from 7:00 to 21:00. We do not need stretched plants. Move them to a cooler window sill with a temperature of + 24c. Glass just in case stuck with cellophane, so that the straight sun accidentally did not cook my works. After the seedlings seemed, as in the photo above, I begin constant ventilation of containers, by shifting the lid. In a day I will increase the gap and will remove at all at 8-10 days.
So we teach the tobacco to the dry air, and then under the covers they have a moisture now 100% and if the lids are removed right away, it may die.
Passed exactly a week. In general, development is excellent, there are no problems.
In addition to constant ventilation of containers by a shift lid, began to open them completely twice a day for 10-15 minutes.
American 3 and 26th are not very good, these seeds are not mine, but were ordered three years ago. I think the bushes for ten from each variety I will get them, but I do not need more. This year, will collect their seeds with them to be confident in their quality.
Almost all day I kept the landing open and periodically watched everything in order, the benefit of the day off and I was all day at home. No plant suffered)). At night, just in case, again covered with lids with slits 1cm. In a day or two, the covers will remove suck.
Comed off the landing. You, I do not advise such strong thinning, because I need all the bushes for 10-15 each variety and therefore I do not regret them.
Here is the actual waste production. I pull the boroughs with tweezers.
American women, hopes give quite a little, at least in a pair of troika bush grow. The first time I come across such quality of sowing material. Well, we will seem to see, here's actually they are their own person.
The first time watered seedlings through the pallet. Top layer Snoch, containers have become easier and irrigation solutions were made. Containers I no longer cover, bushes perfectly adapted to dry air in my apartment.
Two varieties were also swamped, American 26 and 3rd.
2 weeks have passed and at this time I usually feed the seedlings "Nasty of Low Pecs". The feeding is made through the pallet, as well as watering.
In general, the seedlings are good, chorenny. This suggests that there is enough light to her. In principle, it can already be priced, but I plan in a week. I will take her to the village and cutting there.
Americans did not justify themselves, 26th issued only 5 rasters, the 3r did not rise any seed. Newly shed while silent.
At the moment, seedlings look like this:
And five bushings of the American 26. From these five pieces, they will collect their seeds and in the future I will not have problems with the germination.
Semes who sent, I think to put into the trash can, because The result is similar to the first crop. 3th American, not a single seed rose.
Exactly three weeks passed and at this time I usually deal with pickup.
We make drainage holes in cups and fill their land. Our containers were plentifully politically located 30 minutes before the start of the dive. Now we shake off the car from the tank, so we will be more convenient to separate plants. We take a cup and make a deepening chopstick. Choose the best plants and put in the deepening if the deepening is not enough, you can additionally deepen it with your finger. After, on both sides, the fingers are sealing the earth and abundantly water so that the water flows from the drain hole. It should turn out like this.
Our plants are sipped, the cups are signed. I plant a little and picking me takes little time. You, if you have more varieties, you can spend this procedure in a few days.
I put under the world and as soon as the weather will allow, we replant with fresh air, in a greenhouse.
How to grow tobacco
1st of May.
That's what we have today.
The five roots of the American 26th were also sipped 1 numbers. They already give good hope for obtaining their planting material.
The weather more or less allows you to put the cups on the street, which is actually done. Sliced to tomatoes in a greenhouse. Those grades that hesitated, visible in the left corner of the box in a rectangular container, this is a 26th American. At number 3, not a single plant rose again, threw nafig. The weather is now day 12-17, at night 5-7 degrees of heat.
Fucking sawed seedlings.
Tobacco develops as it should be. He fished his "fertile liquid" according to the instructions and from the 7th of May began hardening, teaching it to the sun. On the first day, the total 40 minutes during the day, the second day is 1 hour and so on. Those. Alternate the shadow of the sun. In order for when disembarking in the field, it has not burned down from ultraviolet.
Which slugs are attempted at my good. Sprinkled around the box and under the drawer ashes, they do not like to crawl along it, the ash sticks to the snails and they infuriate them)). After the spript of disgrace stopped.
After a week, one and a half is planned to land for open plantation.
Everything is already asking for great land.
I wanted to plant, but as an evil almost all the day it rained. The Earth has a lot of nuts and there is no possibility to plow it. I hope for a couple of three days will dwell, I will plow it and plant a tobacco.
22nd of May.
Landing in vegetable garden
Yesterday the sun shone and blew a decent wind, the Earth could not eat. It was decided to steal the Earth and plant. When in the evening he acted, it began to rain again, but the rain when landing only for the better. Spent a photo session.
Five bushings of American 26, who have given hopes for obtaining their seeds, feel great.
I'm sazing, I rarely, there is enough earth, but little bushes. You, if you have problems with landing spaces, adapt to your conditions. I, the first year Saluing 50 to 50, everything rose everything. Only to process is not very convenient, in the sense of walking around tobacco. But nothing, to adapt could, would be desire.
Continued how to grow tobacco Read The second part of the article Or watch video.
How to grow tobacco video
From the side, the cultivation of tobacco may seem laborious and requiring time process. This does not correspond to the truth, and in fact, the cultivation of this plant is practically no different from growing cucumbers or tomatoes. It is easy to master the whole process, just enough to use the advice of professionals by reading this material. It contains practical recommendations that will help get a harvest at low costs.
What you need to know
Tobacco belongs to the genus of both annual and perennial plants from the family of the Parotnic. For a long time, it is cultivated for the sake of raw materials, which is then used in the production of smoking products. Tobacco is considered the most popular species, Virgin and real are considered.
It is a plant with a height of up to three meters with pink flowers and oblong leaves. It is considered a thermal-loving culture, it is best grows in the regions with a hot climate. The optimal conditions are the temperature in the area of 30 ° C: high-daily temperature allows you to grow the best tobacco. Growing from seed will require the care of the seedle, which will then need to be transferred to the ground. This culture is best feeling in sufficiently moistened, lungs and bulk sandy soils.
Nicotine is contained in all parts of the tobacco, most of all in the leaves of the plant (up to 2.88%). This is a potent toxic substance causing a short euphoria. Tobacco use smoking, snuff or chewing method - they can all cause physical and psychological dependence. Tobacco components are carcinogens, and the use of this culture in any form can be dangerous to health.
Even more critical to health is smoking sold in cigarettes. At best, one cigarette contains a tobacco gram. A person who is accustomed to smoke in a pack on a day, will need about 8 kilograms of Nicotiana per year. The cost of such "pleasure" beats the pocket.
We continue to compare: from one bush erected with his own hands, you can get up to 30 grams of tobacco. On one square meter of the site will be able to put up to seven bushes, with no special costs required. It is easy to come to the conclusion that the cultivation of tobacco is more profitable compared to spending money on cigarettes.
How to grow tobacco on the garden plot?
Start best with several bushes. This will help assess your own strength and it is better to understand the subtleties of the process. The following year, taking into account the experience gained, it is possible to significantly expand the area of sowing.
To obtain primary knowledge about the process, a small amount of seeds will need. The annual portion of tobacco, the necessary smokers, is about a quarter of the gram of plant seeds. They are relatively small, one gram contains about 12 thousand. Procurement will have only for the first time, then only a few bushes will provide more seeds than it is necessary to sowing hectares. The workpiece can be stored for a long time, but over time, their germination can decrease.
A popular variety is tobacco fragrant. The cultivation of this summer is possible almost anywhere, it easily adapts both to the shade and to the bright sunlight. Bright beautiful flowers and a strong pleasant fragrance make this variety, even in those gardeners who are not inclined to smoking.
The plant is suitable for almost any soil, there is no need to improve it using additives. Important conditions are only the drainage of the soil and frequent watering. The land under fragrant tobacco should be constantly wet, the feeding should be held only twice. In the first case, the lednik will require it during the appearance of buds, and then - with the blooming of flowers.
Also popular smoking product. Seedling and tobacco growing are also available to a novice gardener. This culture is extremely unpretentious. The seaside method is suitable for the explanation of the Machorka in the cool regions, with the warmth of the seed climate sow directly into the ground.
Sowing for seedlings begins at the end of February. Pre-seeds are needed to hold the day in moisture, for this, the water-flushed napkin is suitable. Then the result should be rinsed, dry and put in a ceramic container in a warm place. Seeds must remain in wet material, and on the fourth day they begin to germinate. After that, they need to be dried, mix with sand and sift into a moistened ground to a depth of 8 millimeters. It will protect the roots from the plexus and will allow them to develop normally.
It is best to sow seeds into small separate containers. Tobacco transplant does not like. Sowing is necessary to cover with a film and put in a bright place where there is no direct sunlight. After a month and a half the seedlings will grow up to 16 centimeters in height.
They can be gradually hardening: to carry out fresh air, increasing the duration of such sessions. Looking into beds occurs after late frosts, from the end of April to the end of May. It is necessary to choose a sunny plot with a light soil, which is pre-entered a coward or ash.
Well, it is important to arrange at a distance of 50 centimeters from each other. Before boarding in each of them, half liters of water should be pouring, then make a deepening and place in each seedman. The roots are sprinkled with wet soil, then dry ground.
Cultivation at home
Tobacco cultivation at home is an alternative to people without land or access to greenhouses. Important conditions that will help to achieve shoots will be access to seedlings to heat, fresh air and to measure mineralized soil. The ideal choice will be a sunny plot on the balcony in the warm season.
Preparation of seeds When choosing an option with tobacco cultivation at home is not different from the construction of this culture on the household plot. The principle of work remains the same, regardless of the future location of Nicotiana. In this case, it is also important to scatter the seeds on top of the pre-abundantly durable soil. The ideal depth of the wells is 8 millimeters. Seedlings can be planted on the windowsill with the pickup, and without it.
Care does not take a lot of strength. It is enough to regularly loose the soil and get rid of weeds, water and feed. Adult bushes require less moisture, but shortly before harvesting the plant is desirable not to deprive moisture. Blooming bushes need to be delivered from the top and regularly remove side shoots.
Pest of Culture and Fighting
Let the plant and unpretentiously, but the conditions of cultivation of tobacco require compliance with certain rules and are conjugate with some difficulties. One of them is the struggle against pests that are able to destroy most of the sowing of an unlucky gardener. More than 80 types of garden saboteurs may be damaged by this culture. Avoid such an outcome will help tips that are easy to follow.
The main enemies of tobacco are peach wave, trips and wire worm. The best tool for protection from each of them will be prevention. Prevent the appearance of pests will help in advance the pre-conducted garbage, weed cleaning and regular checking the leaves of the plant.
At the first appearance of malicious organisms, it is necessary to treat the soil with a solution of rubber or metaton. Infected culture will help spraying insecticides. In the case of detection of a wire worm (a small brown insect), crops need to be pollined by a metaphos dryer, and then harrow on 3-4 centimeters.
Not all varieties are designed for cultivation in our climatic conditions. On the territory of Belarus and Russia the following varieties grow the following:
- Virginia Gold (unpretentious to the soil, but not suitable for chernozem);
- Tobacco fragrant (the cultivation of seeds is made both in the garden and at home);
- Ternopil grade (derived from Virginia, is more adapted to the harsh climate);
- Kentucky Burley (has a sweet taste, suitable for tubes, cigars, cigarettes).
Varieties are accurate in any proportions.
When collecting a crop
The cultivation of smoking tobacco takes several months. The ripening of the leaf of the bush is tirelessly, the lower breaking starts in 45 days after disembarking. Starting the harvest should be started from the bottom tier, gradually moving up. The top leaves ripen a month and a half after the lower.
Finished to cut sheet plate, accumulating the maximum necessary substances, becomes dense and wide. It is best to collect leaves in the evening when they have little moisture. It is strictly not recommended to do it in the rain, as well as a day after falling out of precipitation.
Important information about raw material processing
After harvesting, tomatov leaves: ride on the thread, dried in a dark place at the height of the meter from the ground. About readiness for the next stage will be informed by the central leaf veil, which when trying to bend the sheet will break with a characteristic crunch. This is not all: tobacco should spend a year in a dark and dry room.
It came a turn of chemical processing of harvest. It is important to reduce the moisture-hold ability of ground leaves. Recycling allows you to get rid of herbaceous smell. It is possible to ferment the raw materials in the usual oven at a temperature not more than 50 ° C for a week.
Independent production of Nicotiana will not only save on the purchase of Papire, but also protects the garden from pests. The gardener will be able to enjoy the feeling of a mission committed despite the fact that the process will be simple and not take a lot of strength.
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Tobacco cultivation technology at home is entirely dependent on the region. Taking into account this factor and, subject to the methodology, you can get a high harvest.
How many tobacco bushes land
We offer an approximate calculation that will help determine the number of seedlings.
One cigarette contains 0.5-1 g of tobacco. Accordingly, the package contains 10-20 g. Take maximum values. The avid smoker per day smokes at least 15-20 cigarettes. That is, 7-8 kg is consumed for the year.
Depending on the variety, one bush is able to give 20-30 g of tobacco. Subject to the landing of 5-7 stems per 1 square meter. m, it will take no less than 250 bushes and a plot of land of 35-50 square meters. m.
What is better: open soil or greenhouse
In the southern regions, sowing is held immediately in open ground. In areas with a continental and moderate-continental climate, that is, on a significant part of our country, it is first made sitting on seedlings in the greenhouses.
Motherland Tobacco - Wet roast tropics. Therefore, in the middle band of Russia, it is recommended to breed Machorka - a type of tobacco, more stable to temperature differences and a lack of moisture. In addition, the full biological cycle of Machorka is significantly shorter - 2.5 months. Then the tobacco varieties for full aging are required for 3.5 months.
Than tobacco different from Machorka
With all its external similarity, Botany consider Machork and tobacco related, but different flowering plants. Main differences:
- Seed size - Machorka is larger.
- The density of the seedlist sheet of Machorka is above tobacco.
- Raw materials - Tobacco uses only leaves, whereas the branches and the trunk are also used for the maffer's grief.
- Fortress - Nicotine content in Machorka 2 times higher than similar tobacco indicators.
- Ripening time. The growing season of Machorkas is significantly shorter and is 75-80 days. Tobacco matches no less than 95-110 days.
We choose tobacco grade
Scientists of the All-Russian Tobacco Institute selected 186 varieties of tobacco products intended for growing smoking tobacco in the difficult climatic conditions of our country. For example, an ostolist (Soviet Soviet Soviet) is a leader of tobacco crop production. For many years was the main raw material source for cigarettes produced by Soviet factories. Currently, there are more than 30 modifications of this unpretentious and high-yielding plant.
Refers to medium-visual varieties with a maturity of 110 days. A narrow sheet of elliptical shape. The average size of the leaf plate is 45 x 25 cm. One bush gives up to 40 leaves suitable for fermentation.
Early grade with a maturity date of 91 days. The height rarely reaches 1 meter. In this case, Samsun 155 gives a record amount of technical sheet - 50 units from one bush. The area of the sheet plate with good care reaches 530 square meters. cm.
Another popular domestic tobacco variety. Realship is easily due to the rapid timing of the aging (90 days from landing until graft) and taste.
The official name of the village Machorka is the most common among the tobacco products of grades. An unpretentious plant easily tolerates temperature fluctuations, resistant to tobacco diseases, gives a high harvest. Especially marked 100% of the germination of seeds.
The second most popular grade Machorki. By the way, the unofficial name is Mahork number 2. A distinctive feature is a high yield and resistance to diseases. Just like the "Durana 904" the growing season is not more than 80 days.
4 Stages of Tobacco Growing - Step-by-Step Guide
The principles of growing tobacco and Machorkas are the same. Differences concern:
- timing of technical sheets,
- Drying method - shadow or sunny.
First stage - Cultivation of seedlings
To dry seeds into open soil special conditions are not required. The main thing is that the seeding passed to a sufficiently heated and moistened soil at air temperature at least 20-25 degrees. Seeds do not plunge into the ground, but scatter on a wet surface.
Otherwise, it is dealing with the cultivation of tobacco seedlings. In this case, the stage is divided into a number of consecutive actions.
- For 3-5 days before sowing, moisten the seeds with a solution of wine-acid or water with the addition of 1% potassium. This will help reduce germination.
- After a day, rinse the seed material and decompose the thin layer (2-3 cm) on the bottom of the enamelled container. Cover with a wet cotton cloth and remove into a well-lit place. The air temperature should be not lower than 25 °.
- After 3-4 days, immediately after the seeds proceed, they dry them slightly and mixing with sand, sow to a greenhouse.
Attention! The best seeding time to the greenhouse is the end of February / beginning of March. On medium latitudes is the cold season. Therefore, the greenhouse should be heated.
Before planting seedlings in open soil, the main thing is to ensure that the soil is sufficiently moistened.
Second stage - landing in open ground
Depending on the region, the seedling seedlings Soil is carried out from April 20 to the end of May. The main markers in determining the landing period are the absence of frost and heated to 10 degrees of soil.
- Until that time, the plant should already have 4-5 leaves and a stalk thick 3-5 mm. A week before the disembarkation, it is recommended to reduce the amount of watering to a minimum. For 2 days, watering is stopped. And immediately before disembarking, it is necessary to hide the sprouts abundantly. It is necessary in order to not damage the root system of the young plant when extracting.
- Scheme of landing for large-leaf (ostolist, Virginia, etc.): 70x30cm, where 70 cm is the distance between the bushes in the row, and 30 cm is the distance between the rows. For mid-leaf (samsun, trapezond): 60x20 cm.
- The depth of the well depends on the root length. Wells are preparing in advance before the start of work. Each well is spilled well with water - no less than 0.5 liters.
- After the Blooming, it takes a slightly enhance the soil around the stem and spray dry ground to save moisture.
Third Stage - Care
For three weeks after planting seedlings, there is an intense growth of the stem and leaves of the plant, a socket is formed. Care This period is reduced to the dip and regular watering.
- The formation of the socket is the nicotine synthesis time and the signal to an increase in the amount of irrigation. Agrotechnics consider the period most important and determining. The quality of the finished tobacco is largely depends on the quality of plant care in this cycle.
- Fertilizers throughout the growth are added twice: a week after disembarking and after the formation of the socket.
- Stepsing (removal of side shoots) is carried out regularly as it grows.
Fourth Stage - Harvesting
Collection is carried out at the beginning of autumn at the feeding stage of foliage. Carefully rebel the selected material. For drying, damaged or wet leaves are categorically not suitable!
- The torn leaves add up for a period of 12 hours to imply in a well-ventilated and shaded room with dense layers at 20-30 cm.
- The leaves prepared in this way are riveted on the Kapron cord and hang up to complete drying.
- To speed up the process, you can use the oven or microwave.
Tobacco is ready to use as soon as the sheet becomes sufficiently dry and brittle for subsequent grinding.
Video: Tobacco cultivation from A to Z
Smoking Tobacco: Growing, Collection and Storage
Author: Natalia. Category: Garden plants Published: Recent Edits:
Tobacco ordinary (lat. Nicotiana Tabacum), or Tobacco real, or Tobacco Virginsky It is a type of herbaceous plant tobacco families. On an industrial scale, this type of tobacco is cultivated for the leaves, of which there are tobacco products for smoking. Tobacco products are Peru and Brazil. The first description of the tobacco and methods for its use was given to Bernardine de Sahagun in the XVI century in the "General History of New Spain." Relying a scientist for information received from Aztecs, which called Tobacco Grass Pisitel and used for the treatment of headaches, fastened wounds, colds, cold, tumors, bloating and other twigs. Tobacco received his scientific name in honor of the French ambassador in Portugal Jean Niko, who in 1560 sent seeds of this plant to Paris. Today, tobacco is grown for the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, cigarettes and other smoking products, and nicotinic acid is widely used to treat such diseases like diarrhea, dermatitis, glossite, stomatitis and other diseases. However, it should be remembered that nicotine is very toxic, and some substances contained in tobacco, carcinogenic.
Landing and smoking tobacco care
- Bloom: For 25-40 days from mid-summer.
- Landing: Sowing tobacco to the seedlings - at the end of February or in early March, the landing of the seedlings to the ground - from the end of April to the end of May.
- Lighting: Bright sunlight.
- The soil: Easy, breathable and well-drained.
- Watering: Regular as the upper layer of soil drying.
- Feeding: A few days after the seedlings landing, then two more times with the interval of 2-3 weeks. As fertilizers, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer or chicken litter is used (1:10).
- Speed and step-in: Half coloring should be broken down: this measure increases the quality of tobacco. Intensively generated after the topping (coloring of the flowers), the steps should also be deleted.
- Reproduction: Seed.
- Pests: Peach wave, tobacco trips and wire worms.
- Diseases: Black root rot, dry root rot, black leg (seaside rot), powdery dew, false mildew (peronosporosis), white dry spotty (alternariasis), row and viral diseases - tobacco, or ordinary mosaic, cucumber mosaic, bronze (top chlorosis ) And White Pottig.
Read more about the cultivation of smoking tobacco read below
Tobacco is an annual grassy plant that reaches a height of 3 m. The stalk of tobacco is almost not branching. The next one-piece leaves in different varieties of Virginsky's tobacco can be in shape both narrow-lancelike and wide-egg-shaped, and their number on one plant can vary from 16 to 60. The lower leaves of the boning, the base of the leaf is obtained, the surface is resinous, durable. Reddish or pink funnel-shaped tobacco flowers are collected in narrow upper bumpy inflorescences. The main economic and valuable signs of tobacco are the size of the surface and the thickness of the sheet plate. Tobacco culture in 84 countries of the world.
Growing smoking tobacco
The seeds of smoking tobacco possess a good germination, which is preserved for years. It should be known that Machorka (village tobacco) can grow in conditions of the middle strip and even in areas with a cooler climate, but tobacco is a heat-loving plant. How to grow smoking tobacco from seeds? To do this, use both a seaside and a reckless way. The seaside method is used to grow tobacco in cool regions, and In the terrain with a warm climate, seeds are sowing directly to the ground.In the photo: Flowering smoking tobacco
Tobacco sowing at seedlings is made at the end of February or early March. The sowing material must be pre-equipped the day in a wet napkin to swelling, adding a few drops of wine-acid or potassium nitrate crystals into water to soak the fabric. This measure will speed up the appearance of shoots for a week. After swelling, the seeds are washed, dried, put on a wet fabric into an enameled or ceramic container and placed on the germ in a warm place, all the time keeping the tissue in a wet state. On the third or fourth day, small seedlings appear on the seeds.
Do not wait until the seed sprouts become too long, because they are easily rolled.
When 2/3 of seeds, they are dried, carefully mixed with disinfixed dry sand and sow along the surface of a well-moistened soil from humor (three parts) and sand (one part), and top with a layer of the same substrate. The thickness of the covering layer for the Machorka should be 3-5, and for tobacco - 7-8 mm. It is advisable to sow seeds in separate containers - Cookies, peat pots or cassettes, because tobacco, like other grained cultures, does not like transplants, and therefore dive. After sowing, the surface is watered through a thick quote, so as not to blur the covering layer of the substrate. The crops are then covered with a film and put in a bright place where the straight sun rays do not fall.
Tobacco care in a seedale
Hold a container with crops at a temperature of 23-28 ºC. Care consists of almost daily scarce irrigation and mandatory two-time ventilation. When the first pair of real leaves reaches the first seedlings, the temperature is reduced to 20 ºC, and water consumption is increased. In the development stage of 3-4 leaves, if you landed in a box or container, seedlings are peeing into a large capacity. In the future, the seedlings are 2-3 times a fertile land.
Feed tobacco seedlings A solution of 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 20 g of sulfur or potassium chloride in 10 liters of water. From organic fertilizers, it is better to use a chicken litter solution: 1 kg of fertilizer is poured with a bucket of water, it is allowed to wander 10-12 days, it is stirring from time to time, after which the infusion is filled with 4-5 volumes of water.In the photo: how tobacco blooms
The fallout in the open soil seedlings will be ready at the age of 40-45 days, when the seedlings are reached 14-16 cm in height, they will acquire 5-6 real leaves, the stem will be a thickness of 3-5 mm, and the root system will definitely develop. However, 7-10 days before the landing, the seedlings must be hardening, for which they need to be taken daily for some time to open air, gradually increasing the duration of sessions. 2-3 days before disembarking, watering seedlings are stopped, and in 2-3 hours there are abundant moistening of seedlings.
Landing seedlings in open ground
When the return freezes will be passed, and the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 10 ºC, you can land seedlings to the garden. Usually the necessary conditions are developing from April 20 to May 25. The tobacco plot should be sunny, and the soil on it is light and breathable. Previously need to be added to the soil under the sparkle of the ash or a korovyan.
In the holes located at a distance of 50 cm one of the other, before planting, you need to pour over half liters of water. When the water is absorbed, make a deepening in my hole, put a seeding into it and put it off its roots first with a wet soil, and from above - dry ground so that the moisture from the soil does not evaporate so quickly.
Tobacco care in beds
Cultivation of smoking tobacco The process is simple, but there are certain subtleties in it. Tobacco care is regular irrigation, grounding of the soil around the bushes, the removal of weeds and timely feeding, which ideally should be at least three.
First time tobacco feed A few days after the seedling seedlings in the ground, then after 2-3 weeks should follow the second feeding, and 2-3 weeks after the second - the third. A chicken litter solution is used as fertilizers (1:10) or a solution of complex mineral fertilizer prepared according to the instructions.In the photo: blooming tobacco
For better smoking tobacco, the bushes should be thrown out, that is, it is about half of the flower arrows from them. After this procedure, the tobacco will begin to actively form steps, which also need to be deleted.
Pests and diseases
Diseases and their treatment
Tobacco can get sick with such fungal diseases, like a black root rot, dry root rot, black leg (seaside rot), powdery dew, false mildew (peronosporosis), white dry spot (alternariasis). The tobacco is also affected by bacterial row and viral diseases - tobacco, or ordinary mosaic, cucumber mosaic, bronze (the top chlorosis) and white sands.
Measures to combat disease. As for viral infections, it is useless to fight with them: you just need to remove and burn patients with plants. A fifty percent wetting powder belated is used against root rot. And against the bacterial row, perronospos, mildew and other fungal diseases are effective prophylactic spraying of seedlings of zinaba suspension or polycarbacin. In general, the most reliable protection is preventive processing of soil and seeds before sowing. From fungal and bacterial diseases, tobacco seeds are treated for 15 minutes of formalin solution: 20 cm³ of fortyprotinal formalin is dissolved in 1 liter of water. Two liters of such a solution are consumed by 1 kg of seeds. The soil is also shed formalin solution.In the photo: growing smoking tobacco on the plot
Pest and fight against them
From pests for tobacco are the danger of peach wave, tobacco trips and wire worm.
Peach wave Giving for the season to 18 generations, sucks out of tobacco leaves juice and leaves their excrement, skins after molting and corpses. In addition, it is a peddler of such dangerous incurable diseases, like a white sandpit and cucumber mosaic. The wave depletes the plant, slows down its development, reduces the yield and worsens the taste of tobacco. The fight against the tool is conducted by Rogor and Metation drugs, and regular and solid garbage cans and daily inspection of tobacco leaves are very important in preventive purposes.
Tobacco Trips - The same small as the TLL, the pest, giving over the summer to 7 generations. TRIPS contacts the leaves of tobacco and sucks juice from them, from which the quality of raw materials and the yield of tobacco decreases sharply: the affected leaves are badly fermented, unevenly dry out and become incomparable. In addition, trips, like the TL, carry viral diseases. Infected tobacco trips should be processed by insecticides.
Wire worms, or Kostyanki. - It is solid to the touch yellow-brown beetle larvae-shortcut. They live in the ground, damage the roots, do moves in the stems of young plants and eaten the core. They are very difficult to fight with them, so you need to try not to give them to appear in the soil. If you have found on a plot of wires, then two weeks before the tobacco landing, treat the soil under the pixel with a twelve-percent hexachalogen vest, and the next day, in the evening, pollinate the soil with a dust of the metaphos and fence the plot to the depth of 3-4 cm.
Harvesting smoking tobacco and storage
The smoking tobacco in the country is grown by an average of 15 to 17 weeks. When tobacco leaves stop growing, they begin to clean their cleaning. At this time, the leaves reach the greatest density. Ripe leaves of tobacco are characterized by lighter painting. Cleaning is produced in the evenings, starting from the lower and largest leaves. Then, when the middle leaves will be released, they are removed.
The collected leaves are dried, withstanding in a dark, well ventilated room at a temperature of 25-30 ºC. In the process of drying, the tobacco fermentation occurs. Many are fermented already dried tobacco in the electric oven at a temperature of 50 ºC. Do not be afraid of the consumption of electricity: it is minimal.In the photo: how tobacco blooms
What is tobacco fermentation and what is it needed for? Fermentation is the process of changing physical properties by biological or chemical influences. Natural fermentation of tobacco leaves is achieved by long-term storage. Dominican Tobacco, for example, is fermented for 5 years when stored in bales or oak barrels. In an artificial method, fermentation is significantly accelerated. In order to ferment the grown tobacco at home, you must come in the following order:
- dry tobacco leaves without marriage traces (if there are green spots on the leaves, they need to be cut, because the areas with chlorophyll are not fermented) are moisturized on both sides of the sprayer, they are stacking one on the other and covered with polyethylene;
- After a day, the average veil is removed from each sheet, checking the degree of humidity of the leaves, from which the quality of fermentation depends: the sheet ready for further processing should not be raw and at the same time should not break on bending. It should be dry and elastic as a thin cloth. Too wet leaves will have to be dried, and dry - moisturize and some time to hold in stacks under polyethylene;
- Ready for fermentation leaves cut on strips. Good and quickly with this copes the napsherazka. The crushed tobacco is folded into glass jars, filling them out by no more than 2/3, to mix tobacco tobacco with shaking. Banks are closed with twist caps, placed in the oven and set a temperature of 50 ºC in it. The fermentation process lasts from 5 to 7 days. Do not forget to shake tobacco in the banks from time to time so that it is evenly born. On the walls of the cans should not be condensate, and if it appeared, tobacco need to pour out and drown, after which the fermentation process resumes. On the second or third day, the tobacco starts to make the aroma of honey or fruit, and this is a sure sign that fermentation is successful;
- The finished tobacco is poured onto a flat surface, slightly dried, after which it is placed on storage in any hermetically closing container.
Sort of smoking tobacco
Tobacco varieties Great many, and the work of breeders to eliminate all new varieties continues. The most popular in the household are the following varieties:
- Gold Virginia - Tobacco with fruit aroma and gentle sweet taste. This variety is the basis for many smoking mixtures;
- Kentucky Barley - A variety with a pleasant nut aroma, not containing sugar, therefore not needed fermentation. That is, its dried leaves are sprinkled and cut immediately for smoking;
- Maryland - lightweight, light tobacco air drying with excellent aroma and taste, known since 1828. This is a high-yielding grade of early ripening time;
- Walkerz Bodliff - one of the earliest varieties that can be grown even in the northern regions;
- Emerichen - early semi-aromatic, resistant tobacco diseases, used both for cigarettes and cigars, and as a tubular tobacco;
- Crimean ducat - Easily fermented aromatic tobacco with leaves up to half a meter;
- Turkish trapezond. - Aromatic grade for cigarettes and tubes, easily fermented and resistant to unfavorable conditions. The name of the variety was received by the name of the city Trabzon;
- Herzegovina Flor. - Tobacco with a unique taste and aroma of the extent of the former Yugoslavia. In the people, this variety is called Stalin Tobacco;
- Virginia 202. - Early sturdy and fragrant tobacco, stable to many diseases and practically does not require watering during cultivation. The variety is distinguished by reliability and unpretentiousness;
- Barley Originel - strong tobacco, which is the basis for most of the smoking mixtures;
- Oriental Samsun - Fragrant tobacco with low nicotine content. The most aromate is cultivated on dry soils. With irrigation, it loses the taste and aroma, but its yield increases;
- Soviet largest - This disease-resistant variety is characterized by productivity and high smoking merits of Eastern Tobacco;
- Silk Lif - Universal large fragrant variety used for both cigarette and tubular mixtures and cigar production;
- Dubek - Turkish grade, which is considered the best aromatic tobacco in the world. This is a tobacco for real connoisseurs;
- Peric. - Aromatic oriental tobacco, famous smokers around the world. After drying, the leaves of this variety are quassed in barrels, like cabbage so that they acquire their unforgettable sharpness and fragrances.
A separate story deserves a rustic tobacco, or mahorka. This tobacco from North America was brought to Europe at the same time as a smoking tobacco and differs from it a low growth (100-120 cm), a branched stem with a ribbed surface, greenish-yellow flowers and even smaller seeds. But the main difference between smoking tobacco and mahors In that, it contains twice the nicotine, and the smell of Machorkas is stronger and sharp. But Machorca is less good and not so warm, like smoking tobacco. Machorki varieties are divided into two color groups - green and yellow. Yellow Machors have higher smoking advantages, therefore are valued above. Machorka can be grown not only in the middle strip, but also in the Urals, and even in Siberia, and they sow it directly into the ground. Grow Machork and at home.
- Read on the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Parenic
- List of all kinds on THE PLANT LIST.
- Additional Information on WORLD FLORA ONLINE
- Information pro Garden plants
- Information pro Perennial plants
- Information pro Annual plants
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